Ingmar Bergman | vifleem.info
Interview: Liv Ullmann On Directing, Twitter And Tricking Ingmar that you bring up people's perceptions of you in relation to Bergman. Ingmar Bergman. from Facebook tagged as Ingmar bergman Meme. Book, film, and arts reviews; e-courses and practice circles; spiritual quotes; teacher In this fascinating documentary directed by Dheeraj Akolhar, Liv Ullman talks Shame, The Passion of Anna, Scenes from a Marriage, and Autumn Sonata. After declaring his love for her on Faro Island, Bergman built a house there.
Sidelights One of the most noted filmmakers of the twentieth century, Swedish director Ingmar Bergman has imbued his work with the concerns, fears, and hopes of his own life. This stylistic approach led Time reviewer Richard Schickel to call The Magic Lantern "one of the finest self-portraits of an artist written in our time. It was the place where he could at least briefly impose order on life's terrible confusions, find for himself a sustaining moment of peace and grace. His mother subscribed to strict ideals of child-rearing: It was not uncommon for the Bergmans to lock one of their children in a "prayer closet," and Bergman was once made to wear a dress in atonement for disobedience.
The director once remarked that his greatest pleasures as a child were performing with his puppet theater, playing with his magic lantern—a primitive slide projector and an ancestor of the motion picture camera—and exploring his grandmother's spacious apartment in Uppsala. Each of these activities provided an imaginative escape from an otherwise dour routine. The psychological effects of the ostensibly abusive treatment he received during childhood made a strong impression on Bergman, and for this reason the film director "never—presumably could not—shut the window to his childhood," noted Lloyd Rose in the Voice Literary Supplement.Ingmar’s Actors: Liv Ullmann and Bibi Andersson
In the summer ofBergman traveled to Germany as an exchange student and lived with a family near Weimar. His hosts, like his friends and most Germans at the time, were ardent supporters of Nazi leader Adolph Hitler. Bergman later admitted that as a teenager he idolized Hitler, and that he and his family supported the Nazis for a number of years, even during World War IIuntil he was confronted with the shocking truth of the Nazi concentration camps.
This realization led the young Bergman to feel "despair" and "self-contempt," as he reveals in his autobiography. Ultimately, while a student at the University of Stockholm, he finally found a release from such frustrations in the writings of Swedish playwright and novelist August Strindberg. During his time at the University of Stockholm, Bergman became involved with the school's theater group.
His first major directorial effort, a college staging of Macbeth, led to a job with Sweden's Royal Opera House in Essays on the Meaning of Style, "the problems of loneliness, humiliation, and of the essential isolation of the human spirit" dominated the director's work after that time. Film Quarterly critic Eugene Archer wrote that Bergman's "early films [are] strange, exceedingly personal, and deeply provocative, sometimes deriving from the Protestant environment of his own childhood.
They also project Bergman's early pessimistic view of human nature, as well as his "preoccupation with youth and the vulnerability of innocence," remarked Ingmar Bergman author Robin Wood. For example, in Torment a student is abused by a sadistic teacher who, it is later revealed, murdered the student's girlfriend. The film ends with the boy forsaking society to become an outcast.
A similar ending occurs in Summer with Monika, in which a young boy and girl become lovers and leave the city for the northern woods of Sweden. Smile of a Summer Night, in Archer's appraisal, is "a delightful comedy of manners in the tradition of the French boudoir farce. The Naked Night, a much more gloomy film about a couple's loss of dignity in their search for reconciliation, echoes themes presented in Smiles of a Summer Night.
Several of Bergman's first films drew praise from critics, and according to Archer 's Summer Interlude was the point at which the filmmaker "attained complete maturity as a director. Bergman's films after Summer Interlude, according to Archer, "are, without exception, masterful in their evocations of mood and movement, the principle ingredients of cinematic style. The film "has all the marks of a key work in his career," Taylor opined, "wildly bundling together any number of themes which are to recur later.
Moreover, it is the first of Bergman's films which demonstrate any real desire. By this time the director had gathered about him the small troupe of actors and behind-the-scenes staff who would regularly work with him throughout his career, often filming at Bergman's favorite location, the Faeroe Islands north of Great Britain. A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, Marty, Joseph, Ingmar Bergman, une poetique du desirParis, A Life in the TheaterNew York, The Art of ConfessionBoston, Long, Robert Emmet, Ingmar Bergman: Film and StageNew York, Tornqvist, Egil, Between Stage and Screen: Vermilye, Jerry, Ingmar Bergman: Sorel, Edith, "Ingmar Bergman: Mulac, "Husbands and Wives in Bergman Films: Welsh, "Retour de Bergman: Corliss, Richard, and W.
Personification and Olfactory Detail," and J. Chaplin Stockholmno. American Film Washington, D. Tobin, Yann, article in Positif ParisDecember Par Ingmar Bergman," in SequencesJanuary Kauffmann, Stanley, "The Abduction from the Theater: After an initial period of derivative, melodramatic filmmaking largely concerned with bitter man-woman relationships "I just grabbed helplessly at any form that might save me, because I hadn't any of my own," he confesses in Bergman on BergmanBergman reached an initial maturity of style in Summer Interlude and Summer with Monikaromantic studies of adolescent love and subsequent disillusionment.
In The Naked Night he used a derelict travelling circus—its proprietor paired with a faithless young mistress and its clown with a faithless middle-aged wife—as a symbol of human suffering through misplaced love and to portray the ultimate loneliness of the human condition, a theme common to much of his work. Not that Bergman's films are all gloom and disillusionment.
He has a recurrent, if veiled, sense of humour. His comedies, such as A Lesson in Love and Smiles of a Summer Nightare ironically effective "You're a gynecologist who knows nothing about women," says a man's mistress in A Lesson in Loveand even in Wild Strawberries the aged professor's relations with his housekeeper offer comic relief.
The Seventh Seal, The Virgin Spring, Through a Glass Darkly, Winter Lightand The Silence lead progressively to the rejection of religious belief, leaving only the conviction that human life is haunted by "a virulent, active evil. In Bergman's view, faith belongs to the simple-minded and innocent. The Virgin Spring exposes the violence of vengeance in a period of primitive Christianity. Bergman no longer likes these films, considering them "bogus"; nevertheless, they are excellently made in his highly professional style.
Disillusionment with Lutheran denial of love is deep in Winter Light. Other Bergman films reflect his views on religion as well: In The Facehowever, Bergman takes sardonic delight in letting the rationalistic miracle-man suspect in the end that his bogus miracles are in fact genuine.
With Wild StrawberriesBergman turned increasingly to psychological dilemmas and ethical issues in human and social relations once religion has proved a failure. Above all else, the films suggest, love, understanding, and common humanity seem lacking.
The aged medical professor in Wild Strawberries comes through a succession of dreams to realize the truth about his cold and loveless nature.
In Personathe most psychologically puzzling, controversial, yet significant of all Bergman's films—with its Brechtian alienation technique and surreal treatment of dual personality—the self-imposed silence of the actress stems from her failure to love her husband and son, though she responds with horror to the self-destructive violence of the world around her.
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This latter theme is carried still further in The Shamein which an egocentric musician attempts non-involvement in his country's war only to collapse into irrational acts of violence himself through sheer panic. The Shame and Hour of the Wolf are concerned with artists who are too self-centered to care about the larger issues of the society in which they live.
A Passion deals with "the dark, destructive forces" in human nature which sexual urges can inspire. Bergman's later films reflect, he claims, his "ceaseless fascination with the whole race of women," adding that "the film. Witness the case of the various women about to give birth in Brink of Life and the fearful, haunted, loveless family relationships in Cries and Whispers. The latter, with The Shame and The Serpent's Eggis surely among the most terrifying of Bergman's films, though photographed in exquisite color by Sven Nykvist, his principal cinematographer.
Man-woman relationships are successively and uncompromisingly examined in a series of Bergman films. The Touch shows a married woman driven out of her emotional depth in an extramarital affair; Face to Faceone of Bergman's most moving films, concerns the nervous breakdown of a cold-natured woman analyst and the hallucinations she suffers; and a film made as a series for television but reissued more effectively in a shortened, re-edited form for the cinema, Scenes from a Marriage concerns the troubled, long-term love of a professional couple who are divorced but unable to endure separation.
Bergman's later films, made in Sweden or during his period of self-imposed exile, are more miscellaneous. The Magic Flute is one of the best, most delightful of opera-films. The Serpent's Egg is a savage study in the sadistic origins of Nazism, while Autumn Sonata explores the case of a mother who cannot love. Bergman declared his filmmaking at an end with his brilliant, German-made misanthropic study of a fatal marriage, From the Life of the Marionettesand the semi-autobiographical television series Fanny and Alexander.
Swedish-produced, the latter work was released in a re-edited version for the cinema.