Ecological relationships review (article) | Khan Academy
Commensalism: Commensalism, in biology, a relationship between two species in which one obtains benefits from the other without harming or benefiting it. Species: A group of similar organisms that can breed with one another. Symbiotic: Describes a relationship in which two species live closely. Symbiosis, Interspecific interaction in which two species live together in a long- term, intimate association. Mutualism, A symbiotic relationship between two.
Competition usually happens when you have a limited amount of resources.
- Symbiosis A relationship where two organisms (of different species) live together.
- Ecological relationships review
There is one important idea to remember. Sometimes no one wins. Sometimes if everything is even it can be a stalemate and both species compete, but both survive. Imagine if we are different species, but have the same skills.
No one would be a winner in that case.
Mutualism The heart of mutualism is that two species live together in harmony. Both species receive an advantage by working with the other. More importantly, it helps them both survive.
We previously spoke about the relationships between bugs and plants. That often happens as a mutualism type of relationship.
We suppose you could also use rescue dogs as an example. The masters take care of the dogs and the dogs learn how to save people. Everyone benefits in the end. Predator-Prey There many examples of predator-prey relationships: Grass could be considered the prey. Somebody eats someone else.
It's not pretty, but it does encourage the development and advancement of species.Stephen Hawking’s 7 Predictions of Earth’s Demise in the Next 200 Years
Parasitism There's a special type of predator-prey relationship called parasitism. Now you should think about all the creepy crawlies like fleas, viruses, and mosquitoes. Parasites usually live in a very intimate relationship with their host, depending on it for more than nutritional requirements. The host is a source of food and at the same time provides a more-or-less permanent habitat.
So, a mosquito is more properly a tiny predator. But mosquitoes also transmit disease-causing micro-organisms such as the malaria protozoan or dengue virus. These are true parasites. Mutualism Mutualism is a relationship in which both partners benefit from the interaction.
The classic example of mutualism is lichen, a long-term association between a fungus and a green alga or blue-green cyanobacterium.
Symbiosis - Wikipedia
The fungus benefits from the relationship because algae or cyanobacteria produce food by photosynthesis. The algae or cyanobacteria benefit by being protected from the environment by the filaments of the fungus, which also gather moisture and nutrients from the environment and usually provide an anchor to it.
A further example may be observed in a tropical aquarium. Commensalism Commensalism is a similar concept, but only one partner benefits, while the other is unaffected.
The cattle egret is a classic example of a commensal. This bird forages in fields among cows and horses, feeding on insects stirred up when the animals graze. The egret benefits from this relationship because the livestock inadvertently help it find a meal, while they are seemingly unaffected by its presence.
SYMBIOSIS – two or more species live together in a close, long-term association 1.
Whether this relationship is in fact commensal or mutual may depend on the species of bacteria involved. Some biologists argue that any close relationship between two organisms is unlikely to be completely neutral for either party, and that relationships identified as commensal are more likely mutualistic or even parasitic in a subtle way that has not been identified.
Competition Competition is an interaction between organisms in which the fitness of one, or potentially both, is lowered by the presence of the other.
In some cases, both partners may be harmed by the relationship. The behaviour of male red deer during the rutting season is an example of competition within a species, while trees of different species compete for light in a rainforest.