THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND | Shane Andrew Magnaye - vifleem.info
Maybe Meursault has an odd, estranged relationship with his mom, or maybe he cares about his mother so much that he is trying to block out. Philippine News for the Filipino Global Community Meursault narrates how he is victimized by the absurdity of life and how this takes everything away from him. until it is briefly disrupted by the death of his mother in a nursing home. neighbor Salamano (who has a love-hate relationship with his dog). The contemporary Filipino reader's time and place are certainly too different from . Delfin and Corito, her mother, are having another incestuous sexual relationship, With this Camus intensively explored the subjectivity of Meursault while.
After work to runs into his neighbor Salamano and his dog.Camus and The Stranger (Rare BBC Documentary)
He also encounters Raymond, who is rumored to be a pimp, and they discuss Raymond's cheating girlfriend, and his conflict with an Arab. The rest of the week continues in the same manner, with Meursault attending the movies with Emmanuel, and a swimming with Marie.
They play in the water again, and she asks him if The Stranger: Existentialism Essay That Analyazes The Use Of Existentialism Withing The Novel The Stranger words - 3 pages interaction with Raymond stress is created with the letter that Meursault chooses to write, ultimately leading to Meursault's death, which shows another pillar of the existentialist belief - that if one makes a decision he or she must follow through.
The original action of Meursault, the interaction with Raymond and writing the letter, an action that created stress, is perpetuated with the Arabs who seek revenge upon Raymond for wrongs done upon his the morals of meursault words - 5 pages funeral.
Raymond told Meursault about the story with his mistress and how she was cheating on him and then he asked Meursault how he felt about the situation.
Life Itself words - 4 pages. Meursault does not have any conception of what marriage entails, does not understand that marriage is a commitment, and does not comprehend what a relationship means. Unlike Raymond or Marie, Celeste is not morally obligated to help Meursault; to Celeste, Meursault is virtually a complete stranger.
However, Celeste chooses to The Stranger words - 4 pages discovering his mother has passed away. After the funeral, he returns to his every day life.
He goes to movies, spends time with his girlfriend, goes to the beach and makes friends with his neighbor. Meursault and his neighbor, Raymond Sintes, begin spending a lot of time together. A day relaxing day at the beach turns into a blood bath. Because of a disagreement, Meursault kills an Arab. Meursault is arrested for killing an Arab. The relationship between Meursault and Raymond displays another representation of a person being egoistic in the novel.
When Meursault The Stranger by Albert Camus words - 7 pages day Meursault meets his neighbor, Salamano, on the stairs of their apartment building, with his dog. Salamano walks his dog twice a day, beating it and swearing at it the whole time.
Later that same day, Meursault becomes "pals" with his other neighbor, Raymond, who is a gigolo. Raymond asks Meursault if he could help him with a situation that he has with his mistress. Raymond suspects that his mistress was cheating on him, he beats her, and she Looking at the Character of Meursault in The Stranger by Camus words - 6 pages does what he wants to do. Eleven years younger than Camus and still very much productive, Jose has authored more than ten novels that are translated into over twenty languages.
By comparing the novels of Camus and Jose, this paper aims to grasp the temporally and culturally distant speculations of the former on human existence through the more familiar texts of the latter. A Collection of Critical Essays, trans. Prentice-Hall, Before moving into the actual textual productions of both authors, the interpretive framework of this paper needs some explications.
Hermeneutics can be understood as a theory, methodology and praxis of interpretation that is geared towards the recapturing of meaning of a text, or a text-analogue, that is temporally or culturally distant, or obscured by ideology and false consciousness. In our specific case, the texts of Camus are deemed to be both temporally and culturally distant from the contemporary Filipino reader, thus necessitating a hermeneutic approach for them to be systematically understood.
Aristotelian realism and Cartesian philosophy of the subject both assert that the human mind is capable of grasping a faithful cognitive image of whatever aspect of reality the human mind studies. Husserlian phenomenology, though skeptical about the rigors of scientific method, is still faithful that despite the human cognitive frailty, the human mind remains fully self-conscious and capable of attaining reliable knowledge through a more systematic approach.
He proposed, then, the Einklamerung, the methodic bracketing of all subjectivities. Heidegger, though a student and follower of Husserl, questioned the possibility of the interpreter to actually prevent biases and presuppositions to color understanding and interpretation. Thus, instead of hypocritically scrapping these biases and presuppositions, Heideggerian hermeneutics argued for a better use of these cognitive baggages by using them as premises in conversing with texts and objects.
For Heidegger, these baggages, whether social, political, historical and cultural, are part of the very process of understanding. They are discourses that emerged and existed in a milieu that is over- determined by the nihilism that was unveiled and explored by Nietzsche and Dostoyevsky, reinforced by the grim atrocities of the totalitarianism of Hitler, Mussolini and Franco, but counteracted by the existentialist broodings of thinkers such as Sartre.
Instead of abandoning our own life-world, the Heideggarian method proposes to employ this same life-world as our premise in understanding another life-world. Thus, there is no need of forgetting and downplaying the contemporary Filipino life-world, rather the reader ought to highlight and bring into consciousness the significant elements of this life- world.
It came to us from the other side of the Equator, from across the seas. In that bitter spring of the coal shortage, it spoke to us of the sun, not as of an exotic marvel, but with the weary familiarity of those who have had too much of it.
It was not concerned with re- burying the old regime with its own hands, nor with filling us with a sense of our own unworthiness. A Collection of Critical Essays, DEMETERIO 53 If The Stranger was considered a stranger even by its own French audience at the time when it was published, certainly this work would appear even more stranger to the contemporary Filipino reader who may have too much of the romance, didacticism, and traditional narrative style that characterize the majority of Filipino novels.
Sartre, in the same essay, de facto summarized for us the life story of Meursault when he raised the question: But you have no way of knowing it, because your heart is blind. I shall pray for you. Camus made Meursault say: And I felt ready to live it all again too. As if that blind rage had washed me clean, rid me of hope; for the first time, in that night alive with signs and stars, I opened myself to the gentle indifference of the world.
Finding it so much like myself—so like a brother, really—I felt that I had been happy and that I was happy again. Vintage Books, Unlike the young, economically struggling and later on death convict Meursault, Corbello is an aging, filthy rich who is dying of the ailments that usually accompany those who have too much of life in their old age.
Yet both Meursault and Corbello attempt to make sense out of their wretched existence. The Sin purports to be the memoirs of Corbello, and on its first page, Jose made the dying man say: How do I being this litany?
Is this the time to do it? In my present mood of isolation and decay, crippled as I am, should I even try to put things down? A form of expiation, perhaps, or atonement, the recitation of a thousand mea culpas? And if I do it, which I know I must, should I be a slave to the rigid chronology of time or to some human conceit that will blot out everything self- deprecating?
I know I have lived a very interesting life, but will it be possible for me to relate this life interestingly? Mesa which even the turbulence of World War II was not able to disrupt; his carefree adolescence; and his easy ascent to success through easy money and political connections. Side by side with this what would be an enviable existence, the novel portrayed with equal clarity the tender as well as the darker and the less savory life of Corbello: Corbello struggled to make sense out of his Godless existence, which he knew would certainty end up conquered in the cold clutches of death, by banking all his hopes and fortune on his two illegitimate children, Delfin and Angela.
But on his sick bed, even these hopes turned against him. Delfin and Angela decided to get married. After a short while, Angela accidentally discovered that Delfin and Corito, her mother, are having another incestuous sexual relationship, which precipitated the revelation that Delfin and Angela could not get married because they are brother and sister.
The novel ended up with the poignant confrontation between father and daughter. But you were always a father to me. Yet I find it so difficult now to call you Papa. Oh, Tito, thank you just the same for having been so good to me. Sionil Jose, Sin Manila: Solidaridad Publishing House,1. It was not my fault! And those infernal witches. In the Stranger, Camus has already perfected his instrument: Gide had shown him what use could be made of the I to express the most intimate experience with the maximum of detachment.
With this Camus intensively explored the subjectivity of Meursault while living rest of reality and society untouched, because it is precisely the rest of reality and society that Camus questioned. Whereas, Camus does not care anymore with the structural defects of his society, because he is more concerned with counteracting the pervasive nihilism revealed and explored by Nietzsche and Dostoyevsky; Jose is not concerned with the absurdity of human existence because he finds the structural deformation left by the wake of the colonial occupation more pressing than the too alien issue of nihilism.
The difference between Camus and Jose with regard to their treatment, or non treatment, of the social context calls for further comments. Though social realism emerged in France through the works of Gustave Flaubert and Guy de Maupassantthe traumas of fascism and World War II, together with the promise of existentialism, are probably what made Camus transcend this narrative style in favor of cryptic realism that abstracts the individual from his social context.
Meanwhile, the 7 Ibid. If Camus reacted against social realism, because of his existentialist and individualist persuasion, Jose reacted against the pathetic Philippine literary condition, most probably because of his nationalist and therefore collectivist persuasion.
Though both The Stranger and Sin portrayed the life of an individual, their treatment of time varied greatly. Having neither past nor future, he has only a present which is crumbling away and does not become a memory. Time, until the final revolt, is nothing for him but a succession of distinct moments, which no Cartesian God pieces together, which no vital impulse spans, which no remembrance transfigures. By concentrating time in such a short span, Camus was able to thoroughly explore the fragmentary existence of Meursault, which is an impossibility for Jose to perform on Corbello.
The Stranger broods upon the fate of the individual in the face of absurdity, a feat and a theme that might prove too alien to Philippine literature. Maybe, we are simply in a milieu where the social problems are more immediate and pressing than the more abstruse and philosophically refined question of individuality, or maybe we have a literary tradition that remained isolated from the recent speculations of philosophy, or still maybe we have a philosophical tradition that remained too impotent to alter the course of our literary tradition.
Lastly, we compare how Camus and Jose proposed their answer to the riddle of the absurdity of human existence. Sartre explicated what Camus meant by absurdity: Chance, death, the irreducible pluralism of life and of truth, the unintelligibility of the real—all these are extremes of the absurd.
In such a situation, how can man make sense out of his futile existence, his being condemned to labor and sure death, without any assurance of meaning or afterlife?
Having accepted his sentence with courage and condemnation, he becomes superior to his condemnation. The traditionally Catholic life- world of Jose was never seriously shaken by the Nietzschen gospel that proclaims the death of God. Yet, in Sin, Jose experimented with the Godlessness of Corbello.
But Godlessness does not automatically sums up to an absurdity in human existence. Corbello looked with meaning beyond his impending death because he thought his fortune and legacy will flow to his two illegitimate children, Delfin and Angela. Surprisingly, when everything turned against him at the time when Angela discovered that Delfin and her mother had a sexual liaison, and when Corbello found himself abandoned by his children and sister in his sick bed, everything remained meaningful still.
Corbello believed that his tragic life was a consequence of his evil deeds. Jose made him say: I was now convinced I was possessed by some malignant and inexorable spell cast no less by my dear Severina before she died. I was defenseless against that dark, unseen power that she wielded; surely, she must have hated me for having abandoned her. Thus, for Corbello his life is never absurd.
Even though Jose tried to banish God from the life of Corbello, the contemporary Filipino life-world that is presupposed by the novel is replete with the religious metaphysics of Catholicism and Pre-Hispanic Filipino beliefs. The absurd, that consumed the creative energy and passion of Camus, has great difficulties in finding a meaningful place even in the contemporary Filipino life-world.
The Plague and Poon The Plague, published five years after The Stranger, is a novel about a pestilence that befell on Oran, a port town on the Algerian coast, told from the perspective of a physician, Dr. The story unfolded from the day rats scurried out of their hiding places into the open to bleed and die. Soon the scourge started to afflict the townsfolk of Oran, and people began to die by scores daily.
Hesitant to call the catastrophe by its proper name, the town officials tried to bide their time and took a wait-and-see stance, until the mounting death count finally forced them to admit that they are ravaged by bubonic plague.
To arrest the spread of the plague, the people of Oran collectively devised some measures, such as the forcible confinement of the afflicted in public isolation wards, the quarantine of the family members of the afflicted, the lime-lining of graves and later on the cremation of the dead, the formation of sanitary volunteers, and the most controversial sealing of the town gates.
Though the townsfolk communally struggled against the plague, the death toll remained unrelenting.
Word Choices: Meursault and His Mother
Some months after, as mysteriously as the rats started to die, the afflicted persons started to recover, and death rate began to subside. Though the novel overtly talks about a pestilence, it is generally believed to be an allegory of something else. Eustaquio Salvador and his whole family were forced to flee from Cabugaw because his father, Ba- ac, in a fit of rage murdered the Spanish parish priest who earlier sentenced him to be hanged by one hand until his limb rotted away and who machinated to evict them from the land that they are tilling.
On their way to Rosales, Ba-ac was killed by a python and his wife drowned in a swollen river, leaving Eustaquio the leader of the family. In Rosales, Eustaquio became a teacher, healer and leader. Later, when the struggle against the American colonizers broke out, Apolinario Mabini sought refuge in Rosales and met Eustaquio, who became both his healer and secretary.
When the day came that there was an important classified dispatch intended for President Emilio Aquinaldo, who was fleeing towards Ilokos, Eustaquio was tasked with carrying out this important duty.