Obesity is due to the combined effects of genetic, environmental, lifestyle and the interactions of these factors. Leptin (LEP) is an adipocyte-derived hormone that. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between serum leptin levels and In the obese group, leptin showed a positive correlation with BMI. ABSTRACT. The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between obesity, glucose and leptin level of 2 type diabetes mellitus patients.
Wasim M Role of Leptin in Obesity. J Obes Weight Loss Ther 5: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Some diseases caused by obesity. To overcome of those diseases it is necessary to control obesity. Most of the articles showed that the Leptin may be a vital tool to fight against obesity because it is the anti-obesity hormone.
By using leptin therapy may be possible to prevent obesity and diseases like hypertension and diabetes mellitus before their occurrence.
Cytogenetic location is 7q Main role of leptin is to achieve an energy balance in the body [ 1 ]. Leptin binds to receptors in brain and performs several actions that may prove that leptin is important in treating obesity [ 2 ].
This hormone is produced by the adipose tissue, mainly by the white adipose tissue of the human body; it is comprised of amino acids.
The amount of leptin circulating in the body is proportional to the amount of fat of an individual [ 3 ]. Researchers thought that leptin would be the key in controlling obesity.
But research revealed that if greater amount of leptin release then it is less effective in the brain for controlling hunger and food intake. The result is uncontrolled feeding, leading to greater food intake and fat storage [ 4 ].
Leptin And Obesity
It is a kDa circulating hormone that regulates energy homeostasis via hypothalamic neuronal pathways expressing the leptin receptor [ 1 ]. The deficiency of leptin or leptin receptor in humans results in extreme obesity and implicates leptinmediated signaling in the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, reproductive, thyroid and immune functions [ 2 ]. Level of leptin is positively correlated with fat mass, being increased in obesity [ 45 ].
But some studies suggest that leptin may have a stimulating effect on fat oxidation in obese subjects [ 6 ]. Leptin is also produced in fewer amounts in the placenta and probably in the stomach [ 4 ]. It is reported that large fat cells produce more leptin than small ones.
Serum leptin concentrations are highly correlated with body fat content in newborn infants, children and adults [ 6 ]. Leptin inhibits food intake by central action on the hypothalamus. Its functions are quite pleiotropic.
Leptin And Obesity
It is implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including the modulation of immune cell function. Leptin is structurally related to the long chain helical cytokine family, which includes IL-2, IL, and growth hormone.
Leptin acts via two groups of arcuate neurons which are located in the hypothalamus region of the brain. Leptin is a hormone that was largely unknown to the scientific community before Role of leptin is to maintain energy balance by regulating food intake and calorie burn rate. As the amount of fat stored in cells, leptin is secreted into the bloodstream and signals that make you eat more or less. Actually leptin is a kDa protein. It is secreted by adipocytes and dominantly has major role in the body weight regulation by maintaining a balance between food intake and expenditure of energy.
This gene has several other endocrine functions. Most important functions are the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses as well as in angiogenesis and wound healing. It is observed that leptin is the important hormone that is derived from white adipose tissue [ 910 ]. Leptin discovered more than 10 years ago, its function is to decrease food intake and increase nerve activity to both thermogenic and non-thermogenic tissue. It was believed that leptin is an anti-obesity hormone.
Leptin plays major role in the development of hypertension in obesity [ 11 ].
Role of Leptin in Obesity
Leptin Regulation Many hormones present in the body that upregulate or downregulate the level of leptin. Leptin is upregulated by insulin and cortisol and downregulated by catecholamines.
Leptin also autoregulates its own expression by glucose and fatty acids also influence leptin expression [ 12 ]. Recent studies with obese and non- obese humans demonstrated a strong positive correlation of serum leptin concentrations with percentage of body fat.
It appears that as adipocytes increase in size due to accumulation of triglyceride, they synthesize more and more leptin. Leptin's effects on body weight are mediated through effects on hypothalamic centers that control feeding behavior and hunger, body temperature and energy expenditure [ 13 ].
Leptin levels correlated positively with anthropometric measurements, triglyceride, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein, and uric acid levels, and negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Conclusion Findings indicate high leptin levels to be positively correlated with obesity and diastolic blood pressure in male patients with myocardial infarction. Leptin, Obesity, Anthropometric measurements, Myocardial infarction 1. Introduction Obesity is associated with a high risk of developing cardiovascular CV and metabolic diseases, such as hypertension, coronary atherosclerosis, myocardial hypertrophy, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and increased CV morbidity and mortality.
The first major action of leptin to be described is the control of body weight and fat deposition through its effects on hypothalamic receptors, which leads to appetite inhibition, as well as its effects on metabolic rate stimulation and thermogenesis. Thus, increased leptin concentrations would be expected to correlate with decreased weight. However, serum leptin levels are in fact strongly correlated with body fat mass in obese individuals.
Recent studies suggest the existence of an endogenous leptin-resistance mechanism in obesity 6 that may explain this unexpected correlation. In obesity, elevated leptin levels are not sufficient to prevent disturbances in energy balance, suggesting that obese people are leptin-resistant.
Role of Leptin in Obesity | OMICS International
Obesity is associated with increased sympathetic nerve activity, and leptin, partly by increasing renal sympathetic nerve activity, has been proven to participate in autonomic nervous system control.
Therefore, the contribution of leptin to sympathetic activation in a leptin-resistant state, like obesity, is contradictory. This has led to the novel concept of selective leptin resistance, in which resistance appears to be primarily limited to the metabolic satiety and weight-reducing functions of leptin, sparing the other functions in obese individuals. Study population The study subjects included 24 obese male patients and 23 age-matched nonobese men as the control group, who experienced their first acute myocardial infarction.
Ethical approval was taken from local ethics committee. Anthropometric measurements, clinical definitions, and treatment. AMI was diagnosed on the basis of symptoms, electrocardiographic signs, and elevation of myocardial injury markers. Weight and height were measured on the third or fourth day after admission, while the subjects were fasting and wearing only their undergarments.
Waist circumference WCa measure of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, was measured at the widest diameter between the xiphoid process of the sternum and the iliac crest. Hip circumference HCrepresenting subcutaneous fat alone, was measured at the widest diameter over the greater trochanters.