ESL MTEL Prep Second Language Acquisition study guide by freza1 This order seemed to be independent of the learner's age, L1 background, time, Krashen suggests that natural communicative input is the key to designing a .. this method's main goal is to teach students how to read and write in the target language. Discourse competence (Knowing how to arrange language in order to successfully . communication "is viewed as the goal of second language instruction" an important role, this is known as the Communicative Approach. . learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language. The silent period takes place in the ______ stage of language development. The manipulation of language in order to meet communicative goals is called.
It is, however, worth taking a closer look at some of the claims. In both cases, the distinction is between: For example, I know that the past tense of most verbs in English is formed by adding -d or -ed to the base form of the verb I know that the possessive pronoun in French varies with the gender of the following noun the speaker's actual use of the language parole or performance This refers to the learner's ability to apply the rules and be able to say, write or understand the value of, e.
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
She watched the game Marie est ma soeur In fact, de Saussure's distinction relates to the speech community as a whole, whereas Chomsky is referring to individuals. It is clear that CLT focuses on the learners' performance in the language but it should not be forgotten that this performance is based on competence.
Strong form You can only learn a language through the effort to communicate so: No teaching of language forms — no pronunciation teaching, no vocabulary teaching, and definitely no grammar teaching.
The classroom is, therefore, the place where people struggle to communicate, get help and guidance and learn through trying.
Weak form The goal of language teaching is communicative competence but all types of teaching are appropriate providing the goal is maintained. It's also quite hard to find someone who consistently advocates the strong form these days. So what follows applies to the weak form of CLT. Rules of use You will, of course, recall the much-cited statement: There are rules of use without which the rules of grammar would be useless.
Hymes The key concept here is the illocutionary force of any utterance, i. This is sometimes referred to as a statement's communicative value rather than its significance following Widdowson. For example, if you reply to: I think we should eat soon with I'll order a takeaway, shall I? The response is appropriate and relevant so this is language use. If, however, you reply to: I think we should eat soon with Alaska is the largest US state then you have demonstrated only the statement's significance we know what is meant but it has no communicative valueso this is merely language usage.
Three forces There are, in fact, three forces at work when language is used to communicate. The table clearly shows three stages: During the pre-task stage the teacher identifies and introduces the topic and learners feel motivated to perform the task. The teacher recalls and activates existing knowledge by exploring the topic and highlighting useful words and phrases which might be needed during task performance.
The second stage, task cycle, gives learners the opportunity to perform real world tasks with the teacher's monitoring. It is advisable to have students work in pairs or in small groups at this stage.
Also, while planning, the teacher should provide all the necessary input by acting as a facilitator. Learners plan how to present the outcome of their work, generally by exchanging and comparing final products. Students report the conclusions they have reached. The final stage, language focus, places emphasis on language features used during the two previous stages.
The language focus provides opportunities for students to analyse and practice specific linguistic features arising from task. All in all, Task-Based Learning moves from fluency to accuracy and fluency again, which demonstrates that although form is important, it is not the central part of the task model.
Willis' three-stage task model does not clearly state the evaluation component. However, we would suggest a four stage called Assessment as shown in Table 3. Ellis considers different issues related to task assessment. One of the considerations is that tasks have to be meaningful and show how and what the learning is. We propose two kinds of assessment: Rubrics evaluate task performance. The rubric will consider sequence of tasks, group participation and outcome.
The teacher will make this formal assessment by giving a score to each one of the important aspects when performing the task. Douglasas cited in Ellis,p. As a result, rubrics state the objective of the task, the procedures, the use of time for completing the task and the format, all aspects involving the use of a target language. Another kind of assessment we propose is a self-assessment form which will provide students' feedback and attitudes towards the given task.
This evaluation is done individually, even if students worked in pairs or groups. Appendix 3 shows an example of a self-assessment form in which students have the possibility to reflect on their own learning process before, during and after a specific task.
The first aspect to consider is the "Goal" where students reflect upon their final understanding of the task. On the second aspect students analyze their performance during the task cycle.
ELT Concourse: Communicative Language Teaching
Following that, students choose what the best way to work is for them individually, pair work or group work. On the fourth aspect, students think about their linguistic and functional learning, and finally, students have the opportunity to give their opinions, suggestions and recommendations based on the task developed.
This validation tool guarantees the lesson plan has achieved a clear goal. Besides, the teacher will count on at least two kinds of evidence to validate the success or failure of the lesson. It is advisable to adjust the form to the outcome of each one of the tasks. The form will have students assessing task performance and achievement.
Communicative Approach and grammar | pedzisai shava - vifleem.info
This evaluation form will provide insights about four different aspects: The task goal is stated in terms of language use and functions.
Also, it has students reflect if they truly reached the desired outcome.
Task performance has students reflect on the strengths and weaknesses during the task cycle. Teachers may use this feedback to improve input and monitoring future tasks. Although TBL advocates cooperative learning, there are instances in which students might prefer to work on their own.
By indicating the kind of interaction students prefer, teachers identify how to plan future lessons: The language focus provides information on how students are doing in term of language and finally, future tasks give feedback on the how and what plan for upcoming task-based lessons.
Ellis points out that self-assessment fosters students' autonomy, and "can serve as a means of developing a reflective attitude in the learner and can stimulate goal setting" p.
In this respect, English language development, which is seen more as a process than a product, will be supported by a component of formative formal and informal assessment. As Nunan states, it is not only important to "know that" but also "to know how", the two proposed assessment instruments evaluate the "what" and the "how". Task-Based Lessons Richards and Rodgers say that Task-Based Learning is an approach that uses tasks as the main unit for planning and instruction.
Language is meaningful so that learners engage in tasks and thus learning takes place.
The previous models show that a lesson could be a series of tasks or a task may be developed in more than one lesson, which means there may be multiple tasks or mini-tasks within the main task. Goals and objectives will be stated in terms of language use functions rather than linguistic forms. The best way to integrate a task-based approach is by going from topics to tasks. Topics are relevant to the students' lives and make a sequence of different tasks feasible.
In order to raise awareness, teachers can not merely choose a topic from the textbook, examination papers, or social contexts but can also ask pupils to suggest their own topics from a list given by the teacher. When the topic has been chosen, teachers can set up different types of tasks which are classified according to cognitive processes Table 4.
Willis and Willis say that "a good task not only generates interest and creates an acceptable degree of challenge, but also generates opportunities for learners to experience and activate as much language as possible" p. At this point it is necessary to distinguish among focus on meaning, focus on language and focus on form. The teacher begins by choosing a topic, narrows it down and designs the different kinds of tasks; while developing the tasks there will be different language needs.
Focus on language and form depends on how tasks are graded. Pupils begin with a simple task and during the task cycle perform more challenging cognitive and linguistic tasks. There will be different instances to focus on language and form; however, the main focus is on meaning since students want to achieve an outcome.
Learners are working independently with meaning and highlight any language they need to draw upon. For example, students look up a word, choose the best expression or word, check sentences for accuracy or improve the main idea.
Table 5 summarizes the main differences. As can be seen, choosing, sequencing and implementing tasks will combine a focus on meaning and a focus on form.
The lesson presented in Table 6 shows how learners go through a series of tasks in order to attain a final goal, which is to have a class celebration. Each one of the stages prepares learners for the next. The pre-task stage is the shortest in the cycle. The teacher will introduce the topic of celebrations and learners will activate previous learning and meaningful experiences.
This stage creates interest since learners will share life experiences about celebrations. During the task phase students will make decisions based on their likes and needs. They will choose what celebration to organize and how to present it to the class.
Each learner will be responsible for one aspect to make this celebration a success. Students may use their knowledge of the topic and language structures to accomplish the task; the teacher will act as a facilitator by providing feedback as needed.
When using the previous task-based lesson, learners are more motivated and engaged in the learning process. Learners make decisions according to their interest which ends in meaningful learning. For example, during the pre-task phase they talk about their own celebrations and ask about their classmate's which make them appropriate to learn with.
Learners are more responsible for their own learning which will end in autonomy. Although there is time for writing, students will be focused on speaking activities. Conclusion As a way of conclusion, Task-Based Learning offers more advantages than disadvantages.
A TBL framework focuses on language acquisition and learning through different tasks that pursue a goal. When carrying out the tasks, learners do not concentrate on language features, but on reaching their goal.
Learners are engaged in each one of the tasks since life experiences and previous knowledge support learning. Language is used in everyday life and accounts for students' interests. Students are autonomous and teachers monitor and facilitate learning or language acquisition.
Learners are given clear guidelines and make decisions on roles and how to present the final result. After the task completion, language should be analyzed. This analysis is done by using examples from the tasks performed.
Students will be required to do some kind of practice in or outside the classroom. Since there are many kinds of tasks, classes are varied, which increases students' motivation.
- CATEGORY B
Finally, language is used for communication. However, the difficulties of following a Task-Based Learning approach lay in teachers' and students' attitudes.
Practitioners need to be prepared to use language as a means not as an end. Also, teachers have to differentiate real tasks from mere class activities. This differentiation may take time, especially if one considers the fact that many class activities look like tasks; for instance, role plays.
A role play is a task only if students have a clear goal and during the interaction there is a kind of negotiation of meaning. A role play is not a task if students only recite a part of a conversation. There is only language learning if students are using language to reach their communicative purposes.
The last criticism of a Task-Based approach is the apparent lack of focus on grammar. As has been stated and seen in the lesson plan provided, there is a focus on form; it is just not the main point and it is influenced by the students' needs.