Botfly | Revolvy
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Parasitic flies of domestic animals
Thorax is distinctly humped, abdomen is elongated. All species of veterinary and medical importance are blood feeders, with various types of mouthparts these variations do not relate clearly to dipteran taxonomy. Life-cycle is a complete metamorphosis with larvae that are non-parasitic, living in environments such as pools of water, soil, streams. A complete metamorphosis is illustrated by the photograph of Stomoxys eggs, larvae and adult Stomoxys are in sub-order Brachycera.
Only females feed on blood, taking a large meal to support production of several hundred eggs, followed by several more cycles of blood meal followed by egg laying. Life cycle of Stomoxys showing a typical complete metamorphosis from eggs at top left, to three larval stages, followed by transformation as the pupal stage into an adult female or male.
Nematocerans are very important as transmitters of viruses, protozoa, and nematode worms. Also they are often important for biting stress when in large numbers, and may cause allergic reactions at their feeding sites.
A typical pathway of transmission of organisms by blood feeding flies is shown below as a virus transmitted by an adult fly that feeds repeatedly on several hosts see diagram for Biological transmission, and photograph of Culicoides. Insects that transmit pathogenic organisms are commonly known as vectors. Only the adult flies are involved in this biological transmission, in contrast to biological transmission by other arthropods such as lice or ticks in which all active stages of the life-cycle feed on blood.
Typical genera are CulexAedesand Anopheles. Morphology, life-cycle, hosts and feeding. The basic structure of dipteran flies is illustrated in the diagram. Veterinary parasitology also covers arthropods in the Class Acarithe ticks of domestic animals and mites of livestock which have distinctly different structure from arthropods in the Class Insecta.
However, flies in the Order Diptera show clear division of the body into head, thorax and abdomen with distinct segmentation of the thorax and abdomen. The thorax contains large blocks of muscle that power the single pair of wings. Digestive and reproductive organs fill the abdomen. Also unique to the Diptera is a pair of halteres derived from wings during evolution that aid agile flight by these flies.
Adult females lay eggs in batches on surface of stagnant water. Larvae feed on microorganisms and organic detritus in water.
Pupation occurs at the surface of the water. Feeding by females is on a wide variety of mammals and birds, whilst males feed on plant sugars. Transmission pathways of biological transmission of bluetongue virus by Culicoides female midge feeding first on a reservoir cow, then on three susceptible sheep. Parasitic diseases and transmitted organisms. Culicoides imicola stages of gonotrophic and transmission cycle: Microfilaria stage of Dirofilaria immitis, heartworm, in blood of a dog for scale the grey discs are stained red blood cells.
Biting stress can be severe in varied climatic regions cold northern or tropics or conditions of much surface water available for breeding where populations of mosquitoes can become dense. Culex, Aedes and Anopheles species of mosquito transmit Plasmodium protozoa that cause types of malaria in birds.
Culex mosquitoes transmit West Nile virus between birds and horses; they transmit Rift Valley fever virus to livestock species and humans. Mosquitoes are of major importance as transmitters of many types of pathogenic microorganisms to humans causing diseases such as Malaria and Yellow fever.
Plasmodium species causing malaria in humans are exclusively transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. Phlebotomus pappatasi sandfly engorged with blood. Biting midges Family Ceratopogonidae Typical genera are Culicoides and Leptoconops the term "midge" is also used for dipteran flies that are harmless to domestic animals such as those also known as lake-flies Chironomidae. These are small to minute flies a typical vernacular name is "no-see-ums". Wings are veined, short and rounded, usually with distinctive patterns of dark brown on clear background.
Life-cycle is similar to that of mosquitoes: Males are not blood feeders. The site for larval development is within wet soil and bogs. Hosts of biting midges are wide variety of mammals and birds.
Deer botfly | Revolvy
Severe biting stress to cattle, sheep and horses is caused. Horses suffer from a cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction called sweet-itch, or Queensland-itch that is caused by antigenic components of saliva of biting midges. Species such as Culicoides imicola and Culicoides variipennis transmit bluetongue virus between sheep and cattle see diagram and photograph aboveand they transmit African horse sickness virus between horses and other equids.
Culicoides midges transmit Leucocytozoon protozoa to poultry birds. The important genera are Phlebotomus distributed in Africa and Eurasia and Lutzomyia distributed in the Americas. Sandflies are like small versions of mosquitoes but also with overall furry appearance from many long setae like hairs on body and wings see photograph of Phlebotomus pappatasi.
Mouthparts are medium length. Life-cycle is similar to midges: Many species of mammals and birds are used as hosts. Females suck blood using medium length complex mouthparts, whilst males feed on plant sugars.
Symbiosis A relationship in which organisms live Together and at least one is benefited.
Species of Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia sandflies are notorious as transmitters of species of Leishmania protozoa that cause visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic animals and also humans. The typical genus is Simuliumbut also Cnephia and Austrosimulium are locally important. Morphology, life-cycle, hosts, and feeding.
These are medium nematocerans, halfway in size between mosquitoes and midges. Thorax is dorsally humped and dark brown or black see photograph of Simulium.
Life-cycle is similar to mosquitoes: Hosts are most livestock species, horses and poultry and many wild animals. Humans also may be severely distressed by blackflies. Feeding is through skin with short complex slashing mouthparts. Severe biting stress when they seasonally swarm near running water. Severe anaphylaxis may develop rapidly in previously sensitized hosts, potentially leading to death of cattle. Simulium black-flies transmit to Leucocytozoon protozoa poultry birds. They also transmit Onchocerca nematode worms to cattle causing bovine onchocerciasis.
Mouthparts of Tabanus horse-fly: Haematopota pluvialis tabanid fly showing distinct patterns on eyes and wings. Antennae consist of three relatively short segments with asymmetric shapes. Brachyceran flies are of medium to large size and compact shape.
- Deer botfly
They have large compound eyes, well developed wings, and generally fly during daytime seeking food and mates. Life-cycle is a complete metamorphosis, as for Nematocera. This parasitism by brachyceran larvae causes the disease myiasis.
Some of the brachyceran flies are important transmitters of pathogenic organisms through a route known as mechanical or contaminative transmission. Blood flowing into the wound is sponged up by the labella organ of the mouthparts see photograph of Tabanus mouthparts.
The flies tend to take small meals from many hosts at short intervals, to avoid the defensive actions of their hosts. Fresh blood on the labella may contaminate other hosts with pathogenic organisms. Many species of brachyceran flies such as the house-flies and blow-flies that do not feed on blood are also mechanical transmitters of pathogenic organisms by a contaminative route on their mouthparts used for sponging up wet nutritious secretions on skin of vertebrate animals.
Usually the mechanical transmission of microbes by flies does not involve any developmental stage of the microorganism in the fly. However, some brachyceran flies, such as a group of species of Glossina genus are important biological transmitters, not mechanical.
Typical genera are TabanusHaematopotaChrysops and Hybromitra, also many other genera of importance to domestic animals in some regions of world, tropical and subtropical South America especially. These are large robust flies with massive eyes that often show colored patterns. Antennae are characteristic with three dissimilar segments projecting forward from head. Wings are large and strong with complex venation, and often with complex patterns of brown on clear background.
Females take repeated small blood meals from their hosts to support development of a large batch of eggs. Eggs are laid on wet soil where larvae develop, sometimes over one or two years by feeding on soil organisms. Males do not feed on blood. Hosts of females include all species of mammalian livestock animals and horses.
Blood flowing from this is imbibed through a sponge-like element of the mouthparts, the labella similar to that shown in photograph of Calliphora. Bites of tabanid flies are painful. Dense populations of these flies cause severe biting stress to livestock and horses leading to reduction of gain in liveweight. These hosts may additionally suffer loss of grazing time by clustering in tight defensive packs, a situation known as fly-syndrome.
Many genera of tabanid flies transmit the protozoan Trypanosoma evansi that causes in camels and horses the disease called surra. Tabanid flies are also transmitters the bacteria Anaplasma marginale and A. Typical genera are MuscaHydrotaeaStomoxys and Haematobia. Mouthparts of Calliphora blowfly showing sponge structure of labella at lower right. These are medium to large flies of compact structure, with clear wings of complex venation.
Antennae are highly characteristic with antennae consisting of several compact segments that lie in a deep groove between the eyes; the outermost segment of each antenna bears a feather like structure, the arista, which projects forwards. Species within Musca, Hydrotaea, and similar genera have mouthparts adapted for sponging nutritious liquids with their labellar lobes see photograph of Calliphora mouthparts which also have this sponge structure.
Species within the genera Stomoxys stable-flies, and Haematobia horn-flies are highly adapted for blood feeding, having mouthparts consisting of a strong projecting labium with cutting elements at its point. The Dermatobia hominis is the only species of botfly known to parasitize humans routinely, though other species of flies cause myiasis in humans. General Deer botfly Cephenemyia stimulator A botfly, also written bot fly, bott fly or bot-fly in various combinations, is any fly in the family Oestridae.
Their lifecycles vary greatly according to species, but the larvae of all species are internal parasites of mammals. Largely according to species, they also are known variously as warble fliesheel flies, and gadflies.
The larvae of some species grow in the flesh of their hosts, while others grow within the hosts' alimentary tracts. The word "bot" in this sense means a maggot. The human botfly, Dermatobia hominisis the only species of botfly whose larvae ordinarily parasitise humans, though flies in some other families episodically cause human myiasis and are sometimes more harmful. The bot fly will hijack a mosquito to inject the host with the eggs.
Family Oestridae The Oestridae now are generally defined as including the former families OestridaeCuterebridaeGasterophilidaeand Hypodermatidae as subfamilies. The Oestridae, in turn, are a family within the superfamily Oestroideatogether with the families CalliphoridaeRhinophoridaeSarcophagidaeand Tachinidae.
Of families of flies causing myiasisthe Oestridae include the highest proportion of species whose larvae live as obligate parasites within the bodies of mammals. Roughly species are known worldwide. Infestation Larval stage of Gasterophilus intestinalis Botflies deposit eggs on a host, or sometimes use an intermediate vector such as the common houseflymosquitoes, and, in the case of Dermatobia hominisa species of tick. They are common in Belize.
The smaller fly is firmly held by the botfly female and rotated to a position where the botfly attaches some 30 eggs to the body under the wings.
Larvae from these eggs, stimulated by the warmth and proximity of a large mammal host, drop onto its skin and burrow underneath. Some forms of botfly also occur in the digestive tract after ingestion by licking. Ox warble fly Hypoderma bovis Myiasis can be caused by larvae burrowing into the skin or tissue lining of the host animal. Mature larvae drop from the host and complete the pupal stage in soil. They do not kill the host animal, thus they are true parasites.
The equine botflies present seasonal difficulties to equestrian caretakers, as they lay eggs on the insides of horses' front legs, on the cannon bone and knees and sometimes on the throat or nosedepending on the species. These eggs, which look like small, yellow drops of paint, must be carefully removed during the laying season late summer and early fall to prevent infestation in the horse. When a horse rubs its nose on its legs, the eggs are transferred to the mouth and from there to the intestineswhere the larvae grow and attach themselves to the stomach lining or the small intestine.
The attachment of the larvae to the tissue produces a mild irritation which results in erosions and ulcerations at the site.
The larvae remain attached and develop for 10—12 months before they are passed out in the feces. Occasionally, horse owners report seeing botfly larvae in horse manure. These larvae are cylindrical in shape and are reddish orange in color. In one to two months, adult botflies emerge from the developing larvae and the cycle repeats itself. In cattle, the lesions caused by these flies can become infected by Mannheimia granulomatis, a bacterium that causes lechiguana, characterized by rapid-growing, hard lumps beneath the skin of the animal.