Height loss and osteoporosis of the hip.
Relationship of weight, height, and body mass index with fracture risk at different sites in postmenopausal women: the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis. In patients with osteoporosis, the natural cycle of losing and adding “We wanted to illuminate the relationship between height loss and. Understand the symptoms of osteoporosis from the experts at WebMD.
Osteoporosis & Height Loss : Why it happens and how to prevent it - Harvard Health
In the past doctors used regular X-rays to look for osteoporosis, but they could pick up changes only after a 25 to 40 percent drop in bone density -- by which time the disease is already far advanced. But today machines that expose you to only one fiftieth the radiation you'd get in a chest X-ray, can detect as little as a one percent bone loss.
The most accurate test for osteoporosis is called the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry DXAwhich measures bone density in your spine and hip. The DXA test will produce a "T-score" for your bones: In addition to the DXA, your healthcare provider can now measure your absolute fracture risk to help you make better decisions about whether medications are needed. The National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends treatment for postmenopausal women and men age 50 and older with a T-score of -1 to Are there more inexpensive tests?
Peripheral bone mineral density tests pDXAs are sometimes used as a screening device, but they do not accurately diagnose osteoporosis. These tests measure bone density in the forearm, finger, wrist and sometimes the heel of the foot.
This and other tests that measure bone density in the extremities are less expensive than the DXA, but they are also less accurate. They may not give the best indication of fracture risk at the hip and other sites, for example, so it's possible that you might get a false sense of security from a good reading. In addition, heel ultrasounds, sometimes available in pharmacies, will not work for men because they don't use a male database.
A man's score would be compared to a reference population consisting of women, so according to the Tufts University Health and Nutrition Letter, the measurement would be worthless. Because the less expensive tests may not give an accurate picture of overall bone density in men or women, your health provider is likely to recommend the DXA, which is considered the gold standard of osteoporosis testing.
How do I know if I should be tested for osteoporosis? Some physicians recommend that all women be screened at menopause, when bone loss rises sharply; if a woman's bones are healthy, they say, she should be screened again four years later. The US Preventive Task Force says that women who weigh less than pounds, or who don't take supplemental estrogen, should be screened for osteoporosis beginning at age The task force also recommended that women who don't fit these descriptions should be screened regularly beginning at age All women aged 65 and older Postmenopausal women under 65 who present one or more risk factors for the disease other than being white, postmenopausal and female Postmenopausal women under 65 who have broken or fractured a bone Some physicians also recommend testing for elderly men if they have fractured a bone, are in poor health, or have low testosterone levels.
What is the treatment? Prevention is key, but there's a great deal you can do to keep from losing more bone and to increase your low bone density. Men with osteoporosis will generally be advised to exercise and increase calcium and Vitamin D in their diets see below. Women, who are often more severely affected by the disease, will get the same advice, and one of the following drug treatments may be recommended as well.
Some osteoporosis drugs known as bisphosphonates have been linked to cases of destruction and death of the jaw bone, among other troubling side effects.
Be sure to talk to your doctor about the benefits and risks of each therapy, so that together you can choose the one that's best for you.
What can I do to prevent osteoporosis or slow down further bone loss if I already have osteoporosis? As with most health issues, diet and exercise are the key to getting and staying healthy.
Here are some tips: Try to put on some pounds if you're underweight. Sunlight also gives us vitamin D, so try to get at least 10 to 15 minutes of direct early morning or late afternoon sunlight on your face and arms three times a week.
If you can't get all of the right nutrients naturally, you can take calcium and vitamin D supplements. Experts recommend regular "weight-bearing" exercise in which your feet and legs bear the weight of your bodysuch as walking, running, stair climbing, or dancing.
This type of exercise can slightly improve your bone density and also gives you strength, agility and balance which will help you avoid falls.
Nonweight-bearing exercises like swimming or biking will help build muscle but should be accompanied by a weight-bearing exercise for your bones as well. Weightlifting twice a week also helps prevent bone loss and may even increase bone density slightly, and can be started at almost any age. Cut down on bad habits.
Don't smoke tobacco and drink alcohol only in moderation. These substances have been linked to osteoporosis. Have a bone density test and take medications when appropriate. You need a diet rich in both calcium and Vitamin D, which helps your body absorb calcium and build strong bones.
Experts recommend that men and women under 50 consume at least 1, mg many say 1, mg of calcium per day, mostly from their diet. People over 50 should consume 1, mg.
If you take calcium pills, experts recommend breaking up that dosage into no more than mg at a time. Make sure you get enough vitamin D as well. The Institute of Medicine recommends that people older than 50 get to IU of vitamin D every day, but some experts say that's not enough.
An expert panel convened by the American Medical Women's Association found that many older Americans are deficient in vitamin D. The panel recommends to 1, IU of vitamin D for anyone over the age of The best option is to get calcium and vitamin D naturally or as much as you can from regular food. For calcium, eat dairy products and green leafy vegetables; for vitamin D, seek out fortified products like milk and cereal or foods naturally rich in vitamin D like eggs and salmon.
If I have osteoporosis, how can I protect myself from bone fractures and breaks?
Relationship of Height to Site‐Specific Fracture Risk in Postmenopausal Women
Just remember that your bones aren't as strong as they used to be, even if your muscles are. Falls are especially dangerous for people with osteoporosis. Here are some ways to prevent injury: Don't lift heavy objects. Don't overdo the exercise; start an exercise program like walking slowly and gradually build up speed and distance.
Don't let your pride get in the way of using a cane or walker if it helps you. Have handrails installed on stairways. However, information on the association of height with fractures at other sites is limited and conflicting. A total ofpostmenopausal women, who reported on health and lifestyle factors including a history of previous fractures and osteoporosis, were followed for 8 years for incident fracture at various sites by record linkage to National Health Service hospital admission data.
In conclusion, taller women are at increased risk of fracture, especially of the neck of femur. Therefore, we examined the relationship of height with risk of hospital admission for fracture at nine specific sites among postmenopausal women in the Million Women Study, a large prospective study of women in the UK. Materials and Methods Participants and data From to1.
Further details of the cohort and study recruitment methods have been described elsewhere. Study questionnaires and further details of the data and access policies can be viewed on the website www.
Our main endpoints were hospital admissions for incident fracture. Clavicle Srib S The group of all incident fractures was defined as incident fractures occurring at any of the above sites.
Women either reporting osteoporosis at study baseline or with an indication of osteoporosis in their hospital records before study baseline were assumed to have a history of osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis & Height Loss : Why it happens and how to prevent it
Body size At recruitment into the study, women reported their height and weight in imperial units feet and inches, and stones and pounds, respectively.
These were converted to metric units to the nearest 1 cm and 0. Women were excluded from the analyses if they had a diagnosis of cancer or reported a stroke before study baseline.