tual scheme to examine mother-infant relationship, the most important aspect of This article is a revised English version of a paper originally published in. Mother-son relationship key to emotional development to their mothers in the early years have more behavioral problems later in Mother and son. The analysis by Dr Pasco Fearon, from the School of Psychology and. Single Mothers by Choice: Mother–Child Relationships and Children's that solo motherhood, in itself, does not result in psychological problems for children.
In the present study we assessed whether retrospective reports of low quality mother-child and father-child relationship quality are related to higher levels of stressors exposure and greater stressor reactivity.
Neuroticism A concern with using self-reported information is possible response bias. Researchers suggest that neuroticism captures a negative response bias whereby people report higher levels of negative emotions and more somatic complaints e. To alleviate this concern, researchers often include neuroticism in their statistical models to control for potential negative response biases driving their results e. In the present study, a negative response bias would lead to more negative childhood memories, a greater reported number of daily stressors, and higher levels of psychological distress.
Thus, we include neuroticism in our models with the attempt to reduce the risk that the relationship between retrospective reports of mother- and father-child relationship quality and daily emotional experiences during adulthood is a function of distorted or biased reporting. The Present Study The current study examined how retrospective accounts of mother- and father-child relationship quality during childhood are related to daily emotional experiences e.
We hypothesized that more positive retrospective ratings of early mother- and father-child relationship quality are related to lower levels of daily psychological distress. In addition, we hypothesized that more positive ratings of early relationship quality are related to experiencing fewer daily stressors in adulthood. Finally, we predicted that more positive retrospective ratings of early relationship quality with mother and father are related to decreased emotional reactivity to daily stressors.
We further predicted that this relationship will be stronger for fathers and sons. In addition to the above hypotheses, we also questioned whether our findings would vary by age group. In all analyses, we controlled for several covariates.
The foundation of the mother-child relationship
In addition to neuroticism, we also controlled for socioeconomic status SES. Low SES in childhood has been associated with poorer parental quality, poorer health in adulthood and low SES in adulthood. Additionally, given our wide age range, we control for the possibility that individuals whose parents have died have different memories than those whose parents are alive; thus we thus also control for survival status of the parent i.
Respondents completed short telephone interviews about their daily experiences in the past 24 hours on eight consecutive evenings. They completed an average of seven of the eight interviews, resulting in a total of daily interviews. The initiation of interview flights was staggered across the day of the week to control for the possibly confounding between day of study and day of week. Approximately half of the NSDE sample were female Most reported being married This exclusion criterion was selected to examine the unique contribution of each parent for all people where information from both parents was available.
Measures Mother-child and father-child relationship quality In the MIDUS questionnaire, respondents rated the quality of their relationships with both their mother and father during childhood. Respondents then answered the following questions: The identical questions were then asked about their father. To provide an equivalent measurement scale across all five of these questions, responses to the first question were multiplied by. For additional studies using this measure, see Davey, Tucker, Fingerman, and Savla, and Rossi This measure included self-reported assessments of how much during the past 24 hours the respondent reported feeling: Responses were based on a 5-point scale from 1 none of the time to 5 all of the time.
For additional studies using this measure, see Almeida et al. The aim of the interviewing technique was to acquire a short narrative of each event that was then used to rate various components of the events. It should be noted that non-events, or responses triggered by sad memories or recollections of the past, were not coded.
The total number of stressors reported each day was averaged to capture individual differences in the average number of stressors termed weekly stressor exposure that people are exposed to across the course of the week. Respondents reported on average experiencing three stressors across the eight days of study.
The mean was then taken for these items leaving out those who had missing data for one or more items.
Parental education is a well-defined gradient of socioeconomic disadvantage Adler et al. We included this measure because childhood socioeconomic status is a significant correlate of parenting quality Shaw et al. People reported the highest level of education achieved by their father, followed by an identical question about the educational attainment of their mother on a point ordinal scale, ranging from 1 no school or some grade school to 12 doctoral or other professional degree.
For current socioeconomic status, respondents reported their highest level of education achieved on a point ordinal scale, ranging from 1 no school or some grade school to 12 doctoral or other professional degree. A dichotomous variable was created indicating the survival status of each parent. Results Descriptive results Table 1 presents descriptive information and correlations among the study variables.
The foundation of the mother-child relationship - Woman - Psychology | vifleem.info
Representations of compliance-related experiences and worry about the child's future accounted for significant increments in explained variance in mothers' feeding behavior, after we controlled for children's skills and abilities.
Findings suggest maternal representations of relationships are associated with caregiving behavior for mothers of children with CP apart from other child and maternal characteristics and may be a useful focus for research and practice related to parenting children with special needs. Representational models of attachment with one's primary caregiver have been successfully measured in older children and adults and related to behavior in parenting e.
Mothers who behave sensitively also adapt their representations of caregiving to meet their child's changing developmental needs Slade et al. This study extends this work on mothers' representations and parenting interactions, which has heretofore relied exclusively on studies of typically developing healthy children, to focus on the relation between parenting representations and feeding interactions between mothers and their children with a serious disability—cerebral palsy CP.
More specifically, we examine the extent to which representations of the caregiving relationship predict mothers' feeding behavior with their children with CP beyond the contribution of other mother and child characteristics. Because of the prominence of feeding as a stressor and concern to parents for children with CP, the study focuses only on children with CP and on understanding relations between individual differences in feeding behavior and representations for mothers of these children.
Such an approach provides different, and potentially more helpful, information than would comparisons with contrast groups. Thus, the study is designed to advance understanding of parenting processes for parents of children with CP.
Recent work suggests that a focus on mothers' narrative responses to interviews concerning subjective recall and experience of relationships may lead to a better understanding of a mother's behavior with her child e.
In these interviews about care-giving, mothers' descriptions of their relationships with their children are rated globally for aspects of the internalized relationship like those assessed in the AAI: One of these instruments, the Parent Development Interview PDIwas developed by Aber, Slade, Berger, Bresgi, and Kaplan to assess a parent's representational model of her relationship with a specific child. The interview focuses on three central domains: Because the PDI taps a variety of interactive themes, information it yields illuminates the multidimensional nature of parenting representations, not solely the attachment function of the child-mother relationship.
For this study, we used the PDI to elicit mothers' representations of six dimensions of their relationship with the child: In comparisons with parents of typically developing children, these dimensions have proven particularly salient for parents of children with disabilities see Button et al. In previous studies using this instrument, mothers' representations of worry and anxieties about their child's future, as well as concerns related to parent-child boundaries, predicted their sensitive interactions with their child in teaching situations.
In addition, representations of mothers of children with CP, unlike those of mothers raising typically developing children, are dominated by concerns about compliance with parental requests and are marked by worry for the child's future and a sense of pain and burden associated with parenting the child Button et al.
In this study, we extend this work to focus exclusively on associations between mothers' representations and their feeding behaviors with their child who has CP. Cerebral palsy is a heterogeneous group of permanent motor disorders, resulting from an injury to the brain, that affects approximately 1. Depending on the type and severity of brain injury, CP may include a number of functional problems that vary widely in severity.
Children with CP typically need some level of physical assistance during feeding, problem solving, and play. Although the maternal behaviors important for parenting nonimpaired children are also important for mothers whose child has CP i.
For example, we recently reported that maternal sensitivity was not as strong a predictor of feeding success for mothers of children with CP as was the degree of a child's oral-motor impairment Welch et al.
Therefore, it is important to consider the possibility that level of child impairment may moderate the relation between mothers' representations and their parenting behavior. In this study, we examined the extent to which mother-child feeding behaviors with a child with CP were predicted by the child's developmental status, mother's education, maternal representations of caregiving, and the interaction between representations and the child's developmental status.
Method Participants This sample of 58 mothers of children diagnosed with CP was part of a larger study of families who participated in a study of parent-child attachment and family functioning in families raising children with a range of developmental disabilities and chronic medical conditions. The study had institutional review board IRB approval and informed consent was obtained from parents.
Families were recruited from clinics at university medical centers, community hospitals, and early intervention programs and came from rural The mean age of mothers in this sample was On average, mothers had All 58 children of these mothers had received a diagnosis of CP from a physician at least 12 months before data collection.
Female children comprised These children were not functionally locomotor, requiring adults to carry them in order to move from place to place. All children demonstrated minimal competencies in communicating with their mothers such that mothers and observers and clinic staff indicated the child regularly displayed cues that the mother understood. The clarity of these cues and the confidence with which they could be understood varied, but there was agreement among parents and observers that the child was an active participant in interactions.
These steps were taken to ensure that observations of feeding behaviors were face valid for these children. All of the mothers responded to the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, a parent report of child developmental level.
The mean Composite Score for the entire sample was Procedures Families in the study participated in a day of data collection. The adapted version of the Parent Development Interview and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were administered to mothers, and mother and child were observed during a lunchtime feeding interaction.
The children completed a variety of videotaped assessment procedures. Families were also given a set of self-report questionnaires to complete at home. It surveys four areas of functioning—communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills—producing domain scores in each area as well as an overall composite score. Within each domain are three subdomains, which do not produce standard scores, but do produce age equivalents. Test-retest reliability coefficients for the domain and composite scores are in the.
Interrater reliabilities are in the. The Vineland was validated on a large national sample. The Adaptive Behavior Composite score from the Vineland was used in this study as an index of the child's general developmental status. The PDI administered in this study was adapted from Aber et al. The adaptation involved shortening the interview slightly in consultation with the interview's authors. Interview questions ask parents to recall specific interactions with their child and to describe their own and their child's emotional responses to the incidents discussed.
All interviews were videotaped and administered by an interviewer trained in standardized administration. Mothers' responses to the 13 adapted PDI questions were coded one question at a time from detailed notes using a standard procedure. They were coded on a set of six 4-point rating scales developed to reflect what parents say about caregiving, how they say it, and what emotion they express or exhibit as they discuss caregiving themes Pianta et al.