Rajput Maratha relations | International Research Journal Commerce arts science - vifleem.info
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of .. Rajputana also came under Maratha domination during this time. . Bhonsales of Nagpur (no blood relation with Shivaji's or Tarabai's family). The Maratha-Rajput relations is an issue which occupies considerable space in the. Mughal chronicals of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Also Durgadas Rathore helped Marathas, and encouraged them. But it's really sad thing that Maratha didn't pay proper gratitude to Rajputs and, instead.
The Rajput is the most worthy antagonist; the Maratha the most formidable enemy; for he will not fail in boldness and enterprise when they are indispensable, and will always support them, or supply their place by stratagem, activity, and perseverance. All this applies chiefly to the soldiery, to whom more bad qualities might fairly be ascribed. The mere husbandmen are sober, frugal, and industrious; and, though they have a dash of the national cunning, are neither turbulent nor insincere.
They were all Sudras, of the same cast with their people; though some tried to raise their consequence by claiming an infusion of Rajput blood. The Rajputsafter serving some or the other Mughal for agesbegan life as sovereigns in about To the norththe Mughals had fallen apart and to the souththe Marathas were still fighting whatever Aurangzeb could throw at them.
This situation prevailed till aroundwhen the Marathas began plundering Gujarat and Malwa. The Rajputs too were free by thenand one would think they would take the opportunity with both hands.
Maratha Empire - Wikipedia
They even had Bappa RawalVeer Hammir and others to look up to. A Rajput invasion of Multan and Sindh was highly possibleeven desirable. Sadlythat didn't happen. Upto the late s there was no real contact between the two powers.
After invading Gujarat and MalwaBajirao did not sweep into the Rajput states. Infacthe seems to have followed a policy of targeting the erstwhile Mughal provinces of GujaratMalwa and Hyderabadwhich were still being ruled by Nawabs and Nizams.
There is one fleeting case of Bajirao being called to settle a Rajput dispute. Bajirao himselfalarmed at the pasting that Nadir Shah gave Delhiwanted to create a Rajput confederacy in As it turned outNadir Shah did not venture southand this grand plan fizzled out.
But by the late sthe Marathas had come to dominate much of westernsouthern and central India. They were the power brokers. Everyoneincluding the Rajputswanted to ride piggy back on this new kid in town.
They were expected to wade into two warring parties and solve their problems. The Marathas also took upon themselves the task of putting the whole country in order.
By the mid sthe Marathas and Rajputs were well and truly entangled in their politics. They had so far maintained a hands off approachbut when they did finally take matters in their own handsthe Marathas found it to be anything but a smooth ride. I will cite two examples herefrom the s. Meanwhile, the ship-building tradition had almost vanished amongst "hindus".
Along with it vanished the tradition of naval warfare.
In those years, the necessity of Europe to reach out to India grew dire and in that process they developed better tools to reach India some way or the another. Most important of those tools were better ships loaded with better guns. Marathas had to reinvent the wheel of Ship-building and naval warfare completely. While they were the ones who started meddling with european powers, Maratha navy was essentially a brown-water navy which is still the case in modern republic of India, who is successor of maratha India.
With this navy they did conquer bases like Andaman and other islands, they could not encourage Indic mercantile ventures to go out and trade with rest of the world under the aegis and protection of Maratha navy something which even modern Indian state isn't doing much.
There are various reasons for this, one of them being by that time Hinduism had acquired many negative self-flagellant attributes, one of them being "Sindhu-Bandi" First of the seven legendary "prohibitions" on Hindus. Sindhu-Bandi prohibited Hindus from crossing Indus river and Indian ocean.
The Vaishya-class of India was more of less following this norm. The process which "generates surplus wealth" is trade.
One who controls trade-routes, has access to surplus resources which he can use at his disposal. While agriculture and taxation also contribute towards "sustenance", they cannot create impetus for growth. Hence policy makers of Maratha India were perpetually cash-strapped, even when the taxation of the territories ruled by them was quite efficient.
They were not much indulgent rulers, nor did they spend money on private or public construction projects, except religious revival all temples destroyed by muslims were rebuilt in Maratha-India.
Shivaji had abolished the mansabdari system and started paying fixed salary to all his soldiers and employees with a calibrated pay-scale.
However, when Aurangzeb invaded deccan, he started luring the deccan satraps by offering them Mansabs and jaagirs fiefdoms. To prevent this attrition of men, the third Maratha king Rajaram abolished the reform brought in by his father Shivaji and implemented by his elder brother Sambhaji in spite of adverse conditions and started offering Jaagirs to Maratha chiefs. He decentralized Maratha resistance which is why they could outfight Mughals for 27 years and emerge victorious thereafter.reality of maratha
They would not receive any assistance from Maratha state, except authorization. This school of thought sustained after Mughals died out and marathas retook India.
War and expansion require revenues. With no access to trade and revenue generated therein, the options left in hand was agriculture, taxation or loot. The output of war-ravaged country in form of taxation and agriculture is very less it takes time for farmers to come back and confidently till their lands.
Rajputs had allied themselves with Mughals since days of Akbar. Hence the wealth was intact in Rajputana. While Rajputs showed no tendency to regroup and expand outside Rajputana akin to Marathasthey were sitting on pool of wealth, part of which had escaped Mughal retribution for at least years prior to expansion of Marathas.
Furthermore, Marwadi people had knack of trading and accumulating wealth in fact, Peshwas encouraged Marwadis to migrate to Maharashtra and start their ventures there.
This Marwad region too is in Rajputana. Marathas which emerged out victorious, belonged to the school of Rajaram and not Shivaji and Sambhaji. Hindu society was not yet ready to venture out to trade. To do so, they had to depend on Europeans and Indians had lost the technology to build ships which could compete and outmatch europeans due to negligence of years.
These cash-strapped expanding Hindus needed money to fuel their expansion. Territory controlled by Rajputs had that money stored in their coffers. Furthermore, Rajputs were divided, hence comparatively easier to cherry-pick. They belonged to "Hindu" side and hence kafir side of Mughal network, so attacking them won't provoke Indian "Ummah" to give a clarion call for Abdali-like Jihad again which resulted in Panipathence attacking Rajput was more "politically convenient".
There are many other factors like Shinde-Holkar-Peshwa triangle which emerged afterentanglement of Marathas in politics of Ganga-valley and few more.
Brief Notes on Akbar's Relations with the Rajputs
All these factors resulted in Maratha-Rajput relations. Similar other region was Bengal, something similar happened there from to The Indian national identity was very much present, hence we cannot attribute the infighting of Indians and Hindus to lack of national identity. There are numerous letters from period of Shivaji to later Peshwas until where "India for Indians" sentiment is spoken of and acted upon time and again.
Panipat campaign is pinnacle of this sentiment. So we cannot attribute it to "lack of national identity" in Marathas. Marathas, afterwere "India", just like from Samudragupta onwards, Guptas were "India".