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Learn about how to tackle a GCSE English Literature poetry exam question that asks you to love / relationships; power / conflict; time / place; youth / age. Describes the relationship of each source to the others that you have selected Writing literature reviews: A guide for students of the social and. Students are asked to write literary analysis essays because this type of assignment Character - representation of a person, place, or thing performing.
The basic research question — what works? Realist reviews have no particular preference for either quantitative or qualitative evidence.
As a theory-building approach, a realist review usually starts by articulating likely underlying mechanisms and then scrutinizes available evidence to find out whether and where these mechanisms are applicable Shepperd et al. Primary studies found in the extant literature are viewed as case studies which can test and modify the initial theories Rousseau et al.
The main objective pursued in the realist review conducted by Otte-Trojel, de Bont, Rundall, and van de Klundert was to examine how patient portals contribute to health service delivery and patient outcomes. The specific goals were to investigate how outcomes are produced and, most importantly, how variations in outcomes can be explained.
The research team started with an exploratory review of background documents and research studies to identify ways in which patient portals may contribute to health service delivery and patient outcomes.
These studies were identified through a formal and systematic search in four databases between and Two members of the research team selected the articles using a pre-established list of inclusion and exclusion criteria and following a two-step procedure. The authors then extracted data from the selected articles and created several tables, one for each outcome category.
They organized information to bring forward those mechanisms where patient portals contribute to outcomes and the variation in outcomes across different contexts.
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Unlike other review types, critical reviews attempt to take a reflective account of the research that has been done in a particular area of interest, and assess its credibility by using appraisal instruments or critical interpretive methods.
In this way, critical reviews attempt to constructively inform other scholars about the weaknesses of prior research and strengthen knowledge development by giving focus and direction to studies for further improvement Kirkevold, The authors conducted a comprehensive search on multiple databases to identify eligible reviews and subsequently used a validated instrument to conduct an in-depth quality appraisal.
Results indicate that the majority of systematic reviews in this particular area suffer from important methodological flaws and biases that impair their internal validity and limit their usefulness for clinical and decision-making purposes.
To this end, they provide a number of recommendations to strengthen knowledge development towards improving the design and execution of future reviews on home telemonitoring. It also includes key references to methodological guidelines and useful sources that can be used by eHealth scholars and researchers for planning and developing reviews.
As shown in Table 9. For example, in the case of narrative reviews, there is greater flexibility in searching and synthesizing articles Green et al. Researchers are often relatively free to use a diversity of approaches to search, identify, and select relevant scientific articles, describe their operational characteristics, present how the individual studies fit together, and formulate conclusions.
Some reviews are exploratory in nature e. Hence, in order to select the most appropriate type of review, it is critical to know before embarking on a review project, why the research synthesis is conducted and what type of methods are best aligned with the pursued goals. Concluding Remarks In light of the increased use of evidence-based practice and research generating stronger evidence Grady et al.
As mentioned earlier, when rigorously conducted review articles represent powerful information sources for eHealth scholars and practitioners looking for state-of-the-art evidence. The typology of literature reviews we used herein will allow eHealth researchers, graduate students and practitioners to gain a better understanding of the similarities and differences between review types. As explained above, each type of review has its own strengths and limitations.
Having said that, we realize that the methodological rigour of any review — be it qualitative, quantitative or mixed — is a critical aspect that should be considered seriously by prospective authors. In the present context, the notion of rigour refers to the reliability and validity of the review process described in section 9.
Writing the Literature Review
For one thing, reliability is related to the reproducibility of the review process and steps, which is facilitated by a comprehensive documentation of the literature search process, extraction, coding and analysis performed in the review.
Whether the search is comprehensive or not, whether it involves a methodical approach for data extraction and synthesis or not, it is important that the review documents in an explicit and transparent manner the steps and approach that were used in the process of its development.
Next, validity characterizes the degree to which the review process was conducted appropriately. It goes beyond documentation and reflects decisions related to the selection of the sources, the search terms used, the period of time covered, the articles selected in the search, and the application of backward and forward searches vom Brocke et al.
In short, the rigour of any review article is reflected by the explicitness of its methods i. To conclude, our main objective in this chapter was to demystify the various types of literature reviews that are central to the continuous development of the eHealth field. It is our hope that our descriptive account will serve as a valuable source for those conducting, evaluating or using reviews in this important and growing domain.
An inventory of evaluation studies of information technology in health care. Trends in evaluation research, International Journal of Medical Informatics. Asking the right questions: Health Research Policy and Systems.
PMC ] [ PubMed: Journal of American Medical Informatics Association. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. A systematic, tool-supported method for conducting literature reviews in information systems.#92: Top 3 Books On Relationship Advice
Writing narrative literature reviews. Review of General Psychology. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Overviews of reviews; pp. Synthesis of best evidence for clinical decisions. Annals of Internal Medicine. The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis. Russell Sage Foundation; Research synthesis as a scientific process; pp. A taxonomy of literature reviews. Undertaking a literature review: British Journal of Nursing. Development testing of mobile health interventions for cancer patient self-management: Enhancing the scoping study methodology: The relevance of systematic reviews to educational policy and practice.
Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: 5. The Literature Review
Oxford Review of Education. Analysing data and undertaking meta-analyses; pp. Publication trends in the medical informatics literature: Synthesising qualitative and quantitative evidence: Journal of Health Services Research and Policy.
Literature search strategies for conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating qualitative systematic reviews. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Evidence-based practice for telemental health. Importance of a Good Literature Review A literature review may consist of simply a summary of key sources, but in the social sciences, a literature review usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories.
A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information in a way that informs how you are planning to investigate a research problem.
The analytical features of a literature review might: Give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations, Trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates, Depending on the situation, evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant research, or Usually in the conclusion of a literature review, identify where gaps exist in how a problem has been researched to date.
The purpose of a literature review is to: Place each work in the context of its contribution to understanding the research problem being studied. Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration. Identify new ways to interpret prior research.
Reveal any gaps that exist in the literature. Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies.
Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort. Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research. Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important]. Sage, ; Hart, Chris. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination. Sage Publications, ; Jesson, Jill. Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional and Systematic Techniques. Political Science and Politics 39 January A Step-by-Step Guide for Students.
Types of Literature Reviews It is important to think of knowledge in a given field as consisting of three layers. First, there are the primary studies that researchers conduct and publish.
Second are the reviews of those studies that summarize and offer new interpretations built from and often extending beyond the primary studies. Third, there are the perceptions, conclusions, opinion, and interpretations that are shared informally that become part of the lore of field. In composing a literature review, it is important to note that it is often this third layer of knowledge that is cited as "true" even though it often has only a loose relationship to the primary studies and secondary literature reviews.
Given this, while literature reviews are designed to provide an overview and synthesis of pertinent sources you have explored, there are a number of approaches you could adopt depending upon the type of analysis underpinning your study. Types of Literature Reviews Argumentative Review This form examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply imbedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in the literature.
The purpose is to develop a body of literature that establishes a contrarian viewpoint. Given the value-laden nature of some social science research [e. However, note that they can also introduce problems of bias when they are used to make summary claims of the sort found in systematic reviews [see below]. Integrative Review Considered a form of research that reviews, critiques, and synthesizes representative literature on a topic in an integrated way such that new frameworks and perspectives on the topic are generated.
The body of literature includes all studies that address related or identical hypotheses or research problems. A well-done integrative review meets the same standards as primary research in regard to clarity, rigor, and replication. This is the most common form of review in the social sciences.
Historical Review Few things rest in isolation from historical precedent. Historical literature reviews focus on examining research throughout a period of time, often starting with the first time an issue, concept, theory, phenomena emerged in the literature, then tracing its evolution within the scholarship of a discipline. The purpose is to place research in a historical context to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments and to identify the likely directions for future research.
Methodological Review A review does not always focus on what someone said [findings], but how they came about saying what they say [method of analysis]. Reviewing methods of analysis provides a framework of understanding at different levels [i.
This approach helps highlight ethical issues which you should be aware of and consider as you go through your own study.
Systematic Review This form consists of an overview of existing evidence pertinent to a clearly formulated research question, which uses pre-specified and standardized methods to identify and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect, report, and analyze data from the studies that are included in the review.
The goal is to deliberately document, critically evaluate, and summarize scientifically all of the research about a clearly defined research problem. Typically it focuses on a very specific empirical question, often posed in a cause-and-effect form, such as "To what extent does A contribute to B?
Theoretical Review The purpose of this form is to examine the corpus of theory that has accumulated in regard to an issue, concept, theory, phenomena. The theoretical literature review helps to establish what theories already exist, the relationships between them, to what degree the existing theories have been investigated, and to develop new hypotheses to be tested.
Often this form is used to help establish a lack of appropriate theories or reveal that current theories are inadequate for explaining new or emerging research problems. The unit of analysis can focus on a theoretical concept or a whole theory or framework. Sage Publications, ; Kennedy, Mary M. Systematic Reviews in the Social Sciences: Blackwell Publishers, ; Torracro, Richard.
Terms, Functions, and Distinctions. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. Structure and Writing Style I. Thinking About Your Literature Review The structure of a literature review should include the following: An overview of the subject, issue, or theory under consideration, along with the objectives of the literature review, Division of works under review into themes or categories [e.
For example, in a fantasy adventure novel, the main party might share an important quest. The character with controlling tendencies might try persuade the party to take a course of action. The above example shows that if you give each character distinctive traits, including flaws, pivotal scenes will become more interesting. Make sure some character relationships ebb and change Sometimes, relationships do proceed on a single track.
While some relationships may be fairly fixed, primary, intimate relationships in a story need to ebb and change. Say, for example, two romantic leads move to a new city.
The pressure of being in a new place with a reduced support network could force them to rely on each other more and fault lines could show in their relationship as a result. This creates curiosity in the reader and satisfying narrative tension.