Drusen and their relationship to senile macular degeneration

drusen and their relationship to senile macular degeneration

Fluorescence Lifetimes of Drusen in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the. Objective To quantify the 5-year risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in eyes with different macular drusen characteristics (ie, size, type, location, and. Aust J Ophthalmol. May;8(2) Council Lecture. Drusen and their relationship to senile macular degeneration. Sarks SH. This study is based on the .

According to postmortem studies, reticular pseudodrusen share superficial ultrastructural and compositional similarities with soft drusen.

AMD- age related macular degeneration (drusen)

Reticular pseudodrusen are especially visible in near infrared reflectance imaging and may appear hypofluorescent in fluorescein angiography. Five-year risks of progressing to late AMD are estimated to increase approximately fold depending on the actual stage of AMD, ranging from a 0.

Fluorescence lifetimes are specific for each molecule. They are known to be independent of the fluorescence intensity and are influenced by the local metabolic environment. Methods All participants were recruited from the outpatient clinic of the department of ophthalmology at the University Hospital in Bern, Switzerland.

The study is registered at ClinicalTrials. Subjects and Procedures A standardized sequence of investigations was performed for every patient, which included measurement of best-corrected visual acuity Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study [ETDRS] letters 26 and measurement of intraocular pressure using air tonometry as a noncontact system to avoid corneal staining with fluorescein.

Council Lecture. Drusen and their relationship to senile macular degeneration.

After maximal pupil dilation with tropicamid 0. Eyes with ocular pathologies besides AMD such as media opacities and other retinal pathologies were excluded to avoid potential imaging artifacts. Stages of AMD were classified as follows: Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Ophthalmoscope and Image Analysis Fluorescence lifetime data were acquired using a fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope based on a Heidelberg retina angiograph HRA Spectralis system Heidelberg Engineering.

The FLIO system and its technical background are described in previous publications including detailed laser safety calculations. The laser exposure is well below the limits set by the International Electrotechnical Commission. Photons were separately detected in two channels according to their wavelength: A minimum of photons per pixel was recorded within the macular center in both channels.

drusen and their relationship to senile macular degeneration

Recorded fluorescence lifetime data were analyzed using SPCImage 5. A binning factor of one was applied, averaging the photons of an individual pixel point with the directly adjacent pixels to increase the numbers of photons per pixel. A fluorescence decay histogram was generated for every single data point in both spectral channels using a bi-exponential decay function.

drusen and their relationship to senile macular degeneration

It represents the amplitude weighted mean fluorescence decay time per pixel and wavelength channel. The primary outcome was the mean fluorescence lifetime Tm. Statistical Analysis For statistical analysis, only data of one eye per patient was used. If applicable, the eye with the better image quality was chosen; otherwise, one eye was selected randomly.

Council Lecture. Drusen and their relationship to senile macular degeneration.

Procedures The baseline and follow-up examinations used similar procedures, which have been described in detail elsewhere [ 241321222324252627 ]. Details of the grading procedure have been described elsewhere [ 241321222324252627 ]. Genetic Measurements The genetic measurements have been described in detail elsewhere [ 28 ].

  • Small Drusen and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study

In brief, samples of DNA were extracted from buffy coat specimens collected at the baseline examination. Current heavy drinking was defined as the consumption of 4 or more servings of alcoholic beverages daily at the time of the examination; a serving was defined as 12 fluid ounces of beer, 4 fluid ounces of wine, or 1. Participants were considered physically active if they engaged in physical activity long enough to work up a sweat at least 3 times per week.

drusen and their relationship to senile macular degeneration

Aspirin, multivitamin, and anti-hypertensive medication use were determined from self-report. The severity status of drusen in an eye was defined as follows.

Level 1 No drusen: No signs of any drusen or of early or late AMD. Level 2 Minimal area of small hard distinct drusen: Level 3 Small area of small hard distinct drusen: Level 4 Moderate area of small hard distinct drusen: Level 5 Large area of small hard distinct drusen: Level 6 Intermediate drusen: Statistical Analysis We examined the association of the drusen severity level in an eye and other risk factors measured at one examination with drusen severity level in that eye at the next examination, 5 years later.

Small Drusen and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study

Pairs of visits were accumulated during the 20 years of the study and risk factors were updated for each 5-year period. Multiple contributions from an individual were accounted for by using generalized estimating equations GEE.

An eye was considered at risk for incidence of a specific level on the drusen severity scale if drusen were gradable at 2 consecutive visits and had a less severe level of drusen at the earlier examination. The outcome of interest was the development of drusen at or above a given severity level e. For example, development of intermediate drusen Level 6 was evaluated for all eyes with Level 1 through Level 5 at the start of an interval.

drusen and their relationship to senile macular degeneration

If the severity level was Level 6 or any AMD at the follow-up visit, the eye was considered to have developed intermediate drusen.

Analyses of specific risk factors age, sex, genotype were stratified by the initial drusen severity level.

drusen and their relationship to senile macular degeneration

Models were adjusted for age and sex.