Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Vocational Psychology: Current Status and Future Directions. The development of This chapter provides a brief overview of the . counseling relationship as a therapeutic system (see Figure. 2) . There are a number of Career Development theories, but no one theory is . by an ongoing series of transitions (changes in roles, relationships or routines) that. The purpose of this brief is to discuss how RISER's model, SAIL, and career Currently, there are many theories of career development (e.g., Super's Life Span .
There are a number of Career Development theories, but no one theory is comprehensive. For instance, most theories are limited in that minorities, women, and socio-economic diversity are underrepresented in the research most studies are based on middle class white males. Also, some theories may not translate across all cultures since the studies are based on the experience of specific cultures.
For these reasons, it is recommended that career counsellors employ a holistic approach by drawing from a combination of theories that best suit their personal style as well as the unique needs of their client.
Career development theory comes from four disciplines: Differential Psychology is interested in work and occupations. Personality Psychology views individuals as an organizer of their own experiences. Work-related needs follow the basic physiological needs, begin at level 2, and continue as follows: Level 2 — Safety Needs: Basic needs and security of employment, property, family, and resources.
Level 4 — Esteem: Level 5 — Self-Actualization: This is where an individual feels comfortable relying on his or her own experiences and judgements. The person also may have a need to fulfill inner potential. Individuals and occupations each have unique characteristics and traits.
Individuals develop these traits over their lifetime. The highest satisfaction comes when there is a good match between the characteristics of the individual and the occupation.
Individuals must be prepared to change and adapt to the circumstances. Career Typology Theory of John Holland Under this offshoot of Trait and Factor Theory, career choice is not random but an expression of our personality.
Applying Career Development Theory - Career Professionals of Canada
The focus is on personal characteristics and occupational tasks. Individuals possess a combination of two or more of six personality types: Occupational environments are also a combination of these six types.Gottfredson's Theory of Career Circumscription and Compromise
Holland theorized that people in similar jobs have similar personality traits. It helps the individual get oriented to varied work environments. There is no insight as to how type is developed or how to work with specific types. Social Learning Theory of John Krumboltz This theory focuses on heredity, environment, learning experiences and task approach, and how these factors influence behaviour and career choice. The counsellor tries to understand how someone arrived at a career-related view of him or herself and the world, and helps the client reframe this view by identifying how it may be limiting or problematic.
Counsellors can help shape the environment, making it conducive to learning. Pace and life uncertainties of the 21st century make it impossible to have plans laid out in advance, and research shows that most people are in their current careers as a result of a series of unplanned events. The focus is on the learning process and how it affects vocational choice and change.
Indecision should be labelled open-mindedness. Here, the construction of knowledge is integrated into a more complex cognitive framework. At this level, the learner uses his or her base of prior knowledge to solve problems and demonstrate newly acquired understanding in multiple ways often through conversation and writing. Depth of knowledge concerns the central ideas of a given topic or discipline.
Students who develop systematic, integrated, or holistic understandings are beginning to develop depth of knowledge. To demonstrate depth of knowledge, students must discover relationships, construct explanations, draw conclusions, and solve problems within the disciplinary content. Although Newmann and Wehlage focus on the use of elaborated written communication as evidence of construction of knowledge and disciplined inquiry, SAIL includes a variety of communication modalities to allow for the use of adaptation and accommodation.
Emphasizing value beyond school allows teachers to build on student experiences. It also requires that teachers and students consider how school learning applies to real world or public problems. Thus, the learning becomes relevant to students, enhancing the personal value of that learning for each student. SAIL adds outcomes such as graduation and attendance rates; performance on standardized tests, standards, and benchmarks; and performance on other assessments used to determine the effectiveness of school practices e.
Furthermore, SAIL considers postschool outcomes related to career development: Finally, if the SAIL model is going to be useful, the model must address the roles of, and the benefits to, all educational stakeholders e.
Thus, we must consider the professional community and related, external educational supports. Research in this area examines teacher engagement and professional development, administrative support, the roles of school support staff, parent involvement, and community involvement. More specifically, it is important to understand the influence of stakeholder expectations and roles on secondary and postsecondary outcomes for all students.
It is also crucial to identify the contextual factors e. Parsons suggested that there are three broad factors that must be taken into consideration when choosing a vocation. Second, the individual must possess knowledge of the requirements and conditions of success, advantages and disadvantages, compensation, opportunities, and prospects in differing lines of work.
Last, the individual must consider the relationship among all of these factors Parsons, Currently, there are many theories of career development e. All the theories have scientific value, but it is difficult to connect them to actual practice Szymanski, In the next section of this paper, we provide an overview of the constructs and processes of career development, along with an integrated analysis in italics of the overlapping features of these variables with the SAIL model.
Specifically, we will discuss how career development constructs and processes are reflected in the construction of knowledge and in disciplined inquiry.
Constructs In career development literature, the term constructs is used to define variables that combine to impact someone or something in relation to processes.
Kerlinger defines them as concepts used to explain something. Constructs may be facts e. They include the categories of individual, contextual, meditating, environmental, and outcome constructs Szymanski et al.
The career development needs of any group of individuals, including people with disabilities, members of various racial, ethnic, and cultural groups are diverse simply because populations are diverse. Therefore, when planning career development strategies it is crucial to keep in mind that individuals have widely different life experiences, abilities, and interests. Considered within a framework of authentic learning, the constructs of the individual are critical toward construction of knowledge, as the learner must not only organize information that may be specific to him or herselfbut also consider alternative solutions, strategies, perspectives, or points of view which requires an awareness of the individuality of self and others.
For example, an individual born with severe physical disabilities may have experienced few work-related experiences in childhood e. This individual might need to have specific experiences e. Contextual constructs relate to situations in or under which individuals live or have lived.
They include socioeconomic status, family, education, nonnormative influences e. According to Szymanski and Hershenson these contexts can pose risk factors to career development. A full range of contexts exists for ALL individuals.
However, it cannot be assumed that any one risk factor is of importance to any one individual simply because that individual is a member of a certain group. In terms of authentic learning pedagogy, the contextual constructs will have a bearing on the construction of knowledge for the individual, as well as on planning for disciplined inquiry.
For instance, an individual growing up in a single-parent home of low socioeconomic status will have a very different set of experiences from which to draw upon than an individual growing up in a dual-parent home of middle-class income. In the SAIL framework these constructs are critical to consider in terms of their impact on how a student constructs knowledge. Again, differing perspectives can be effectively utilized by educators to draw upon student strengths and experiences in providing challenging and stimulating learning experiences.
Social and monetary reinforcements are examples of environmental constructs that are important to all individuals. Many individuals with disabilities, however, have taken a variety of low status and low paying jobs Verre, Education from the SAIL perspective might be demonstrated in alteration of the school culture i. The perspective might also be demonstrated by changes in outcome constructs, as discussed below.
According to Szymanski and Hershenson, most career development theories include some type of outcome construct. Job stress, for example, is a very important area of career planning for students with disabilities to consider. Job stress is particularly high in work that is monotonous and work in which individuals have little control Landy as cited in Szymanski and Hershenson.
Verre has found that such work is exactly the kind in which many persons with disabilities are often employed. Career development in the SAIL model might result in dramatically different outcomes for learners in terms of their own expectations for success, attitudes toward school and work, and postschool employment outcomes.
Indeed, the application of construction of knowledge, disciplined inquiry, and value beyond school to career development theory and practice could result in career development programs that would encourage all learners to seek intellectually challenging careers, many of which have not historically been highlighted in such programs Wehman, Processes Processes specific to career development are crucial to the construction of knowledge in an authentic model as well. The teacher or other service provider may find a need for increased or enhanced opportunities for processes to occur.
The SAIL model provides each student with the skills needed to proceed through these processes and enhances ALL students' access to challenging learning experiences. The following processes are explored in light of an authentic inclusive learning framework below: For most individuals both play and work are part of the developmental process.
Depending on the home environment, children with disabilities may have limited opportunities to learn critical social skills through play or to learn responsibility through chores. Adolescents or young adults with disabilities may have developed limited interests due to a lack of early experiences or a lack of exposure, over time, to a variety of experiences.
Service providers may need to plan enrichment activities so students gain experiences necessary for informed career planning. With the SAIL model, the unique developmental process history for each student may be capitalized on by focusing on higher order thinking, substantive conversations, social support, and academic engagement rather than specific methodologies or content. Students are thus challenged to develop their knowledge bases in ways that are meaningful to them.
For example, if authentic assessment suggests that a learner has had few developmental experiences to support the development of work personality i.
In the process of congruence, the service provider considers individual, contextual, mediating, and environmental constructs in finding the best match between a person and a job. Congruence among students, their learning environments, and the relevant mediators is an essential feature of authentic learning. If optimal congruence is not achieved, an authentic outcome is not likely—as the individual will be limited in terms of applying prior knowledge in new and useful ways.
Because the SAIL model does not focus on specific teaching practices or methodologies, students can acquire knowledge and generate products in ways that are best suited to their strengths and needs. Likewise, in a truly authentic learning environment, the learner is able to go beyond mere reproduction of knowledge to generate varied responses or alternatives to problems. Thus, the student is learning skills that will facilitate his or her congruence within many environments.
The process of decision-making is one that also pivots around the ability of the individual to identify, generate, and choose from more than one response an important feature of the construction of knowledge in an authentic learning framework.
Due to limited experiences, people with disabilities may need assistance in order to participate fully in career planning. For the majority of the U. As the process of decision-making is one that also pivots around the ability of the individual to identify, generate, and choose from more than one response, it is directly applicable to learning in the SAIL model.
According to Rothmanparental occupations and social class e. Disability can also affect socialization. For example, teachers and service providers who expect students with disabilities to behave inappropriately, may actually respond to students in ways that encourage inappropriate behavior.
Children with disabilities can be socialized toward success or socialized toward inferior work or life roles. It is important for teachers and other service providers to be aware of the importance of the socialization process and work to empower students rather than reinforce negative roles. If a student has been constructing knowledge in the area of social skills, the disciplined inquiry may build on that by engaging the student in many, varied social situations that challenge the student to solve social problems via dialogue and interaction with others.
In schools utilizing authentic pedagogy, students are encouraged and supported to socialize with one another as well as with others in the communities in which they live. This social action is believed to aid them in disciplined inquiry and in realizing the value beyond school of what they are learning.
Allocation is the process by which teachers and other service providers allow or restrict access to critical opportunities Rothman, For students with disabilities, the allocation process can often restrict career development.
This exclusion often leads to restricted opportunities for students to experience varied social and work situations. The SAIL framework may provide the teacher or service provider with an entirely new perspective on how decisions are made for and with students with disabilities regarding career development.
Specifically, the active nature of learning in an authentic learning model may encourage teachers to support students in the use of self-determination and self-advocacy skills.