Assyrian empire builders - Babylon and the cities and tribes of Southern Mesopotamia
facts on the Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Assyrian Empires with this online quiz. of these empires and their relationship to ancient Mesopotamia; Knowledge. Kids take a quiz or webquest on the Ancient Mesopotamia - Babylonian Empire. Practice problems online test and history questions for students. such as stealing and murder. Marriage and divorce. All of the above. None of the above. Hittites sack Babylon and end Hammurabi's dynasty Sumer, Akkad, Babylonia, and Assyria. Cradle of Civilization . close relationship between religion.
Probably this karum, or merchant colony, which followed its own laws and municipal organization, was under the protection of a foreign king. The trading colony ended in a time of confusion, with the rise of the Indo-European Hittites into Anatolia.
The Amorites also moved in, with Assyria falling under control of the Amorite chieftain, Shamsi-Adad, who established a dynasty and was unusually energetic and politically canny, installing his sons as puppet rulers at Mari and Ekallatm.
The correspondence that has been recovered sounds almost like a TV melodrama, with the older son an apparent paragon and the younger one at Mari inept. The City of Assur and the Rise of Assyria. The name Assyria comes from the venerable city of Assur, named after the deity Assur, who was identified as the Assyrian national god. Rather colorless compared to the well-developed personalities of the Sumerian and Akkadian gods, he seems more like an embodiment of the Assyrian manifest destiny.
Built on an outcrop of limestone rising to a considerable height above two course of the Tigris which forms an angle, the city had good natural protection on two sides and had constructed powerful defensive walls on the third side. Assur dates back to Early Dynastic time and the remains of a temple to Ishtar dating to this period have been discovered.
The city was the religious center of Assyria and was covered with temples — inscriptions mention thirty-eight of them — and three ziggurats. Shamshi Adad rebuilt the largest ziggurat, dedicated to Assur, and built another Assur temple, while other prominent structures included two unusual double shrines, one to Anu and Adad, the creator and weather gods, and one to Sin and Shamash, the moon and sun gods. Instead, in keeping with earlier practice, he assumed the throne of Babylon directly and claimed the title of "King of Sumer and Akkad".
Babylonian documents such as the King List seem to indicate that at least some Babylonians accepted the Assyrian king's claim to the throne of Babylon, as he and his successor Shalmaneser V BC are included in the sequence of Babylonian rulers.
Quiz & Worksheet - The Neo-Babylonian & Neo-Assyrian Empires | vifleem.info
But when the latter's short reign was ended by the revolt of his brother Sargon II BCwhich caused rebellions all over the empire, Babylonia was again claimed by a Chaldean chief: Babylonia was lost to Assyria for twelve years.
Sargon II as king of Babylon After consolidating his rule over the empire, Sargon was ready to reclaim the lost throne of Babylon. In BC Sargon invaded Babylonia.
The fractures and conflicting interests between the polities of the region became visible in the ensuing war when some cities and tribes quickly joined Assyria while others stayed loyal to Marduk-apla-iddina. Eventually, faced with this crumbling of support, the Chaldean abandoned Babylon and its citizens invited Sargon to enter the city SAA 17 Marduk-apla-iddina II left as king of Babylon in BC, as depicted on a monument commemorating a royal land grant kudurru.
Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin, VA Once again, an Assyrian king assumed the Babylonian throne. In contrast to his Assyrian predecessors, Sargon remained resident in Babylon for five years, leaving the Assyrian heartland in the hands of his crown prince Sennacherib.
Sargon began the process of properly integrating Babylonia into the empire, following a very different course than his father Tiglath-pileser's laissez-faire policy. For the first time in Assyria's rule over the south, large-scale restructuring was evident.
Babylonia was split into two provinces under the rule of Assyrian governors: Under the two provincial governors operated individual city governors, also directly appointed by the Assyrian king, and military commanders based in the Assyrian garrisons securing the region.
There was, however, little extensive militarisation. The Assyrian administration exerted control mainly through an elaborate intelligence system comprised of local informers and Assyrian agents. Unlike in other provinces, the hierarchical relationships in Babylonia were not clear cut, best evidenced by the fact that Sargon frequently corresponded with and intervened at all levels and various aspects of the administration.
Sargon took the role of king of Babylon seriously. Sargon profoundly shaped Babylonian politics by appointing his favoured officials as provincial and city governors and stewards over the most important temples. Their correspondence with the king survives in many cases SAA As his special envoy to the region, Sargon appointed Bel-iddina, a scholar from his entourage whose task in Babylonia it was to oversee the operation of cults and to report directly to the king on the officials in the region.
Bel-iddina was the king's eyes and ears amongst his administrators in Babylonia and he acted as an extension of the king's authority. Courting the cities Underneath the superstructure of the Assyrian administration, the institutions of the Babylonian cities, such as the city assembly and the temple communities, were largely allowed to continue as before.
Some cities were even left under the control of local rulers if their loyalty was beyond doubt: Sargon also reinstated local rulers who had been ousted by Marduk-apla-iddina, such as in Borsippa where this move garnered much popular support for the Assyrians e. No major deportations affected the cities of Babylonia at this time unlike under Sennacherib after BC.
Sargon also courted the Babylonian cities by offering some of them tax and debt remission anduraru and other city privileges kidinnu.
Babylon and the cities and tribes of Southern Mesopotamia
These privileges effectively limited imperial restructuring and profits, as the citizens of these cities no longer paid all taxes and were exempt from the levy for military service and building work. Granting such concessions, therefore, was a considerable sacrifice of money and manpower which has no parallels anywhere else in the newly conquered regions of the empire.
The reactions of the beneficiaries, who presented these privileges as their traditional right e.
SAA 17 23 from Babylonwere very positive. But to see this policy only as a sign of respect for the Babylonian cities would be far too narrow. Sargon's policy of rewarding the cities was also designed to strategically weaken their links and solidarity with the rural hinterland and the tribes that controlled it.
His actions were motivated mainly by an attempt to counter the influence of Marduk-apla-iddina of Bit-Yakin who maintained much support in the region and even managed briefly to regain control over Babylon in BC, proclaiming himself king of Babylon for a second time.
Sargon's conquest of Babylonia did not result in the wholesale annexation of territory into the Assyrian empire, in contrast, for example, to the aftermath of the capture of such functioning kingdoms as Arpad or Damascus.
Instead, the challenges presented by Babylonia's fractured political landscape were met by adapting different approaches and policies designed to further and protect Assyrian interests whilst strategically showing respect for the cultural traditions and institutions of the Babylonian cities. To gain the loyalty of the urban elite of the south was clearly seen as the best foundation for Assyrian control in the region.