Julia Agrippina | Roman patrician | vifleem.info
marriage of Claudius and Agrippina established a precedent and caused a peal may be connected with Domitian, whose relationship with his niece was. Nov 15, Where she has left a mark it has been only as Claudius's last wife and the mother of Nero. But Agrippina was so much more than simply the. Agrippina the Younger (15–59 ce)Prominent woman intimately involved in by her relationship to three emperors: sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius, and.
Unlike Livia, Agrippina did not use private, feminine influence over her husband to get things done, she acted on her own and sat with him in public as an equal partner in ruling. She even founded a town at the place of her birth in Germany and named it after herself: Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium.
Today we know it as the city of Cologne. She horrified the male Roman elite with the brazenness of her rule and she ignored them unless she could make use of them.
Within her marriage, she persuaded her husband to adopt her son from her first marriage, he took the name Nero at this time, and then convinced Claudius to make Nero his primary heir over his younger, biological, son Britannicus. Not too long after the adoption, Claudius died amid strong rumours that Agrippina had poisoned him.
Nero was just 17 when he ascended to the throne and so she was effectively his regent, placing her as the senior partner. Both their faces are depicted on coinage, and in several they are facing one another, their heads of equal size and equal importance.
In a remarkable sculpture, Agrippina is depicted as the personification of fertile Rome, crowning her young son. Frieze of Agrippina as Rome crowning Nero from Aphrodisias. But such an arrangement could not last forever. As Nero grew up and came to understand his position as emperor, Agrippina also came to understand fully how limited she was as a woman in the Roman world.
In the end, her power was only effective when it was supported by men. When her son withdrew his support, rebelling against his mother, the senate and people of Rome soon followed. Agrippina was forced, very much against her will, into a quiet retirement. Quiet retirement did not suit Agrippina and she never accepted it. She agitated against Nero constantly, setting up factions of senators still loyal to her and trying to use Britannicus as a threat against him.
Eventually, Nero decided to kill her, because as emperor he could.
Agrippina the Younger (15–59 CE) | vifleem.info
Suetonius claims that Nero attempted a number of entertainly elaborate schemes to have her killed, including a collapsing roof in her bedroom and a collapsing boat that would toss her into the sea and drown her. Unfortunately for Nero, Agrippina was both canny and an excellent swimmer so he was forced to resort to low measures: Agrippina was murdered outside of Rome, cremated and buried in an unmarked grave with no ceremony.
Agrippina's advantage in this rivalry for Nero's affection and compliance was her access to the workings of the justice system.
Domitia Lepida was charged with employing black magic against Agrippina and with not controlling her bands of slaves in Italy. Nero, now that the choice was forced, sided with his mother and offered evidence against his aunt, who was sentenced to death. Drusilla 15—38 ce Roman noblewoman. Born in 15 ce; died in 38 ce; daughter of Germanicus Caesar and Agrippina the Elder ; sister of Agrippina the Younger and Julia Livilla; sister and mistress of Caligula.
Several plots to end Caligula's rule were formed and discovered before the conspirators could carry out their plans, including one involving his own sisters.
In that particular incident, he banished his sisters to exile and executed the other conspirators. Though, in the Roman past, only Julius Caesar and Augustus had been deified, Caligula deified Drusilla, setting up a shrine for her, complete with priests, and gave her the name "Panthea" to show that she had the qualities of all goddesses. Flourished at the time of Nero; born around 19 bce; daughter of Antonia Major 39 bce—? Valerius Messalla Barbatus both members of the dynastic Julio-Claudian family ; children: When Nero was three and his mother Agrippina the Younger was exiled, Roman emperor Caligula confiscated the boy's estate.
As a result, Nero lived with his aunt Domitia Lepida until Claudius' accession to the throne of Rome restored Nero's fortune.
Agrippina the Elder - Wikipedia
Domitia, sister of Nero's deceased father Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, was also alleged to be Nero's lover. See also entry on Messalina, Valeria. Third wife of Caligula. The chief obstacle remaining to threaten Nero's succession was Claudius, the emperor himself.
Though accounts of Claudius' death vary in some details, all agree he died by poison and that Agrippina was responsible.
Agrippina the Younger: Unofficial First Empress of the Roman Empire
In perhaps the most colorful narrative, recounted by Cassius Dio, Agrippina put poison on a mushroom, one of Claudius' favorite foods. She buried Claudius with great pomp, and, like the great Augustus, he was posthumously pronounced a god. Agrippina made sure that Claudius' will was not read, and—since there was no one powerful enough to contest the accession—Nero was immediately accepted as emperor. On October 13, 54, Agrippina had achieved her goal, only one month before her 39th birthday.
Agrippina had identified her own interests with Nero's for so long that she now expected to share in ruling the empire. The ancient sources agree that at first Nero was little more than a figurehead, with Agrippina ruling in his name. Symbolic of her early political prominence was the first password given to the Praetorian Guard: Optima Mater The Best of Mothers.
She was appointed priestess of the newly established cult to honor the deified Emperor Claudius. She was represented on coins with Nero, sometimes as a goddess. When a motion was introduced into the Senate aimed at changing some of Claudius' legislation, because Agrippina was cult priestess of the newly deified Claudius, she objected.
She claimed that since Claudius had been deified, none of his decrees should be rescinded. The Senate gave Agrippina's objections due consideration. Although women were never admitted into the Senate chambers, the Senate accommodated her by meeting in a building where Agrippina could listen to the proceedings from behind a curtain.
Though she did not win her cause, the fact that she had been allowed to witness proceedings of the Senate broke with tradition and demonstrated her eminence to all of Rome. Agrippina's power, however, was not unlimited. Nero held the formal authority, while she could control matters only indirectly through her relationship to him or by calling in favors from those who were indebted to her.
Agrippina the Younger
This reality was illustrated graphically when a visiting delegation was given an imperial audience and Agrippina, going farther than she had during Claudius' reign, attempted to join Nero on the same tribunal. Seneca prevented this by advising Nero to step down to greet his mother—thus displaying filial piety while denying her "unwomanly" assertion of formal authority. Gradually, Nero turned more and more to Burrus and Seneca for guidance. As Tacitus observed, Agrippina "could give her son the empire, but not endure him as emperor.
Nero fell in love with Acte fl. When Agrippina discovered their relationship, she had enough authority to force Nero to hide his liaison but not to cut it off. When Nero, as a result of his mother's opposition, began turning ever more to Seneca for counsel than to her, she switched tactics and admitted she had been in error, going so far as to offer the couple the use of her own bedroom. But the problems were not resolved. Nero, attempting to ameliorate their relations, sent Agrippina a valuable jewelled garment as a present.
She responded by claiming that he was only giving her a fraction of what he owed her. She began to rebuff Nero by turning her attention to Britannicus, letting Nero overhear her say that "Britannicus was grown up and was the true and worthy heir of his father's supreme position—now held … by an adopted intruder, who used it to maltreat his mother. As Agrippina's and Nero's hostility escalated, she gave attention to Nero's wife Octavia, to whom Nero was little attached, and began courting other nobility as well.
Nero, in a countermove, deprived his mother of her military guard and moved her from the palace to another house. He ended the great receptions she hosted, undermining her influence with other nobility. When Nero visited her in her new quarters, he came with an armed guard and stayed only briefly. At this crucial juncture, Domitia Lepida, Agrippina's still surviving former sister-in-law, determined to get revenge.
She sent reports to Nero that Agrippina was planning to marry a man who could represent a dynastic challenge and that together they were planning to incite a revolution. Nero, going to unexpected extremes, decided he had to get rid of his mother and began to talk of killing her, although, in the Roman view, parricide was the ultimate sacrilege.
Burrus offered Nero the convincing argument that all have a right to be heard in self-defense and that this right should be extended to the emperor's own mother in particular.
Nero allowed Burrus to bring the charges to her in person. Agrippina defended herself admirably, charging that those accusing her had tainted motives, while claiming a mother's loyalty to her son, Nero. She demanded to see him personally. As a result of their interview, she obtained benefits for her own supporters and punishments for those who had accused her. Their relationship, however tenuous, was restored.
But in the year 58 another crisis appeared in the form of a new infatuation for Nero: Poppaea, though married, was wealthy, beautiful, aristocratic, and determined—possessing "every asset except goodness," as she is characterized by Tacitus.
Poppaea soon had Nero under her influence and went so far as to mock him, implying that he was still under guardianship rather than a man ruling as emperor. She asserted that Agrippina would not allow him to marry Poppaea for fear that his mother's avarice, pride, and control of the Senate would come to light.
No one voiced opposition to Poppaea, in part because many wanted Agrippina's influence undermined. According to several accounts, Agrippina played her last card when, in desperation, she tried to seduce Nero.
Other sources argue that Nero tried to seduce her. All agree, however, that Seneca enlisted Nero's earlier lover Acte to dissuade him from this wicked course of action. Nero again began to avoid meeting his mother and even encouraged people to bring lawsuits against her, among other small harassments. Again, Nero began to toy with possible methods of murdering his mother. Eventually, he settled on a ship with a section that could collapse and drop her into the sea.
With the trap set, he invited her for dinner, displaying great filial devotion, as if their differences were resolved, and afterwards sent her off to her own villa across the Bay of Baiae.
The ship collapsed as planned, and Agrippina was hurled into the sea. Ever the survivor, she swam until picked up by a small boat. Pretending she did not know Nero's intent, Agrippina sent a message to him about her narrow escape.
Nero in consternation sent for Burrus and Seneca to ask their advice. Both agreed that since the Praetorian Guard was under oath to protect the royal house, it would not consent to kill her. Finally, Nero ordered one of his freedmen, who held personal grudges against Agrippina, to kill her, using as justification the lie that she had sent a messenger to assassinate the emperor.
Tacitus reports that the freedman broke into her bedroom with two other officers. Spirited to the end, Agrippina exclaimed, "If you have come to visit me, you can report that I am better.
But if you are assassins, I know my son is not responsible. He did not order his mother's death. Nero is said to have coldly observed her body afterward, commenting, "I did not know I had such a beautiful mother," though some skepticism at this final filial degeneracy is voiced by the ancient authors.
Agrippina was cremated that same night and buried without honor in an uncovered and unenclosed grave. Birth date unknown; died in 65 or 66 ce because of a kick by Nero; daughter of Poppaea Sabina d. As Nero's hedonism grew, so did his lechery. One affair of note was that with Poppaea Sabina, beginning in the year Poppaea was not just another of Nero's playthings—she was of senatorial background and married to Marcus Salvius Otho, who would briefly reign as emperor after Nero's death.
- Agrippina the Younger (15–59 ce)
- Agrippina the Elder
- Julia Agrippina
Beautiful and ambitious, Poppaea supposedly seduced Nero, who ordered her husband to Lusitania so as to facilitate their adultery. Shortly after Nero divorced Octavia c. Though Nero seems to have cared for her as much as he ever cared for anyone, in 65 he killed her by kicking her in the stomach while she was pregnant with their childreputedly after she complained about his spending too much time at the racetrack.
After the murder, Seneca helped Nero contrive excuses for her death: The people responded by decreeing Thanksgivings, establishing annual games to celebrate the discovery of Agrippina's plot against Nero, and designating Agrippina's birthday as an inauspicious day.
Agrippina still retained the loyalty of the popular classes, however, and graffiti and ditties expressed an alternate view: It was said that the coast echoed from the neighboring hills with wails from his mother's grave, and Nero left that area of the country to escape his feeling of horror.
Tacitus claims that after Agrippina's death Nero "plunged into the wildest improprieties, which vestiges of respect for his mother had hitherto not indeed repressed, but at least impeded.