Euphrates River - New World Encyclopedia
The Euphrates–Tigris River Basin is a transboundary basin with a total area of .. the availability of water does not coincide with the irrigation requirements of the basin. was to meet the Syrian Arab Republic's water and energy needs. Map of The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers after the Flood of Noah and the Tower at Babel - Old Testament Maps. The Story of the Bible. The Tigris and Euphrates, with their tributaries, form a major river system in Western Asia. From sources originating in the Armenian Highlands of eastern Turkey.
Syria has dammed its two tributaries and is in the process of constructing another dam. Iraq has seven dams in operation, but water control lost priority during Saddam Hussein's regime. Since the collapse of Ba'ath Iraq inwater use has come once again to the fore. The scarcity of water in the Middle East leaves Iraq in constant fear that Syria and Turkey will use most of the water before it reaches Iraq.
As it is, irrigation in southern Iraq leaves little water to join the Tigris at the Shatt-al-Arab. This Hebrew word, derived from either the word "stream" or "to break forth," has been translated as Euphrates. It is the fourth river, after the Pishon, the Gihon, and the Tigris, Hebrew name is Hiddekel to form from the river flowing out of the Garden.
The river of the same name marked one of the boundaries of the land promised by God to Abraham and his descendants through Isaac and Jacob. In the Hebrew Bibleit is often referred to simply as "The River" ha-nahar ; "On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram and said, "To your descendants I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates" Genesis God creates the Euphrates: And the fourth river is the Euphrates" Genesis 2: The Euphrates marks the north-eastern border of the land God promises to Abram: God through Moses promises the Israelites the Promised Land: Your borders shall run from the wilderness to the Lebanon and from the River, the river Euphrates, to the western sea" Deuteronomy Soon the river Euphrates will disclose the treasure [the mountain] of gold.
So, whoever will be present at that time should not take anything of it. The Prophet Muhammad said: Ninety-nine out of one hundred will die [in the fighting], and every man among them will say: Whoever sees it should not take anything from it".
It [the Euphrates] will uncover a mountain of gold [under it]. Euphrates in history The Euphrates provided the water that led to the first flowering of civilization in Sumerdating from about the fourth millennium B. The river valley formed the heartlands of the later empires of Babylonia and Assyria. For several centuries, the river formed the eastern limit of effective Egyptian and Roman control and western regions of the Persian Empire.
Unique Facts About the Middle East: The Tigris and Eurphrates
The rate of evaporation on the river has increased to as much as 50 percent with the creation of large reservoirs and related irrigation areas behind a number of dams. The precipitous flow of its tributaries makes the Tigris more susceptible than the Euphrates to short-term flooding, and its short length brings its annual flood period a month earlier.
Those estimates are roughly twice the values calculated for the Euphrates. In flood time the two rivers together carry as much as three million tons of eroded material from the highlands in a single day. Climate The Tigris and Euphrates make habitable and productive one of the harshest environments in the world.
Precipitation is light in the lower reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates but increases considerably at higher elevations in their source areas. In the higher elevations, where the rivers have their upper courses, winter winds are light and variable. Much of the precipitation falls as snow, which can lie in some places for half the year. During winter, the mean temperature in the mountains is well below freezing, so that agriculture comes to a halt and communications are restricted. The mounting flow is augmented in their middle courses by seasonal rainfall, which reaches its peak between March and May.
In the lower courses of the rivers in the alluvial plain, rain can be torrential in winter but usually does not exceed 8 inches mm per year. Humidity in most areas is as low as 15 percent. Dust storms, which occur throughout the year, are especially frequent in the summer.
In what country do the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers meet?
Most wind-borne dust consists of particles of clay and silt mixed with minute fragments of shell, which are from a remnant dune belt that has been formed from abandoned irrigated fields and dried-up marshes in the area between the two rivers.
Only occasionally are there true sandstorms, bearing material from the western desert. Plant life In ancient times, oak, pistachio, and ash forests covered the mountains and foothills through which the upper Tigris and Euphrates pass. New plantings, particularly in Turkey, supplement the scattered remnants of those forests today.
In the steppe zone to the south of the mountains, some vegetation can flourish year-round, but the growing season in most nonirrigated areas is quite brief; the wildflowers and other plants that appear in spring die off in the heat of May and June.Water level drops dramatically in Iraq's Tigris river
In the driest zones, camel thorn and prosopis are the dominant shrubs. The densest communities of plants exist along the rivers and in the marshes.
Various reeds and the narrow-leaved cattail are abundant, and the giant mardi reedwhich reaches a height of up to 25 feet 8 metreshas been used as a versatile construction material since antiquity. The Euphrates poplar and a species of willow grow in small belts beside the rivers and canals; the poplar provides strong timber for construction and boat building, as well as handles for tools. The date palm is indigenous to the region. Five-stamen tamarisk and mesquite form thickets along the lower and middle courses of the Tigris and its tributaries, up to an elevation of about 3, feet 1, metres.
Licorice is sufficiently plentiful to allow exports.
Animal life Wild pigs are common in the marshes and have spread into newly planted eucalyptus groves in other parts of the alluvial plain. Jackals, hyenas, and mongooses are found along the rivers in southern Iraq, and a large variety of Indian jungle cat reportedly still inhabits remote tamarisk thickets.
Lions were last sighted along the Tigris in Foxes, wolves, and gazelles are common in the alluvial plain, and some of those animals range as far north as central Anatolia.
Wild pigs foreground and traditional housing background in the marshland between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, southern Iraq. There are several kinds of viper and a small cobra, as well as a variety of nonvenomous snakes. Lizards can reach lengths of nearly 2 feet 0. Frogs, toads, and turtles abound in the rivers and marshes. Members of the carp family are the dominant freshwater fish of the Tigris-Euphrates system.
Barbels weighing as much as pounds kg have been recorded. There are several varieties of catfish, as well as spiny eels. The Tigris River flowing through Baghdad. Although the water dispute between Turkey and Syria was more problematic, the GAP project was also perceived as a threat by Iraq. The tension between Turkey and Iraq about the issue was increased by the effect of Syria and Turkey's participation in the UN embargo against Iraq following the Gulf War.
However, the issue had never become as significant as the water dispute between Turkey and Syria.
Although the drought affected Turkey, Syria and Iran as well, Iraq complained regularly about reduced water flows. Iraq particularly complained about the Euphrates River because of the large amount of dams on the river. Turkey agreed to increase the flow several times, beyond its means in order to supply Iraq with extra water.
Tigris–Euphrates river system - Wikiquote
Iraq has seen significant declines in water storage and crop yields because of the drought. To make matters worse, Iraq's water infrastructure has suffered from years of conflict and neglect. Turkey, Iraq and Syria signed a memorandum of understanding on September 3,in order to strengthen communication within the Tigris—Euphrates Basin and to develop joint water-flow-monitoring stations.
In exchange, Iraq agreed to trade petroleum with Turkey and help curb Kurdish militant activity in their border region. Their drainage began in the s, to reclaim land for agriculture and oil exploration. Saddam Hussein extended this work in the late s and early s, as part of ecological warfare against the Marsh Arabs, a rebellious group of people in Baathist Iraq. However, with the breaching of the dikes by local communities after the invasion of Iraq and the ending of a four-year drought that same year, the process has been reversed and the marshes have experienced a substantial rate of recovery.
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